nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2009‒10‒24
five papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Respondent Certainty and Payment Vehicle Effect in Contingent Valuation: an Empirical Study for the Conservation of Two Endangered Species in Zakynthos Island, Greece By Stithou, Mavra
  2. UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications By Kathleen M. Jennings; Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic
  3. Non-governmental Organisations and African Wildlife Conservation: A Preliminary Analysis By Katherine Scholfield; Dan Brockington
  5. Free movement of services in the european union By Rotaru, Marius-Petre

  1. By: Stithou, Mavra
    Abstract: This paper focuses on providing evidence of what explains respondent certainty by assessing at the same time the sensitivity of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to payment vehicle effect. Two different samples were collected from local residents and foreign visitors of the Zakynthos Island in Greece and a split-sample approach was employed. The elicited conservation values concerned two endangered species, the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta and the monk seal, Monachus monachus. In terms of policy implications, the stated Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) values confirmed that there is a potential for a range of internal funding options, which could sustain the future operation of the existing National Marine Park of Zakynthos (NMPZ). From a methodological point of view, the study explores the determinants of self-reported certainty with regard not only to different payment modes but also to attitudinal and socio-economic variables and adds evidence to the debate about the validity of CVM by testing the presence of a payment vehicle effect. The results show evidence of sensitivity of the method to the mode of payment and reveal a relationship between the chosen payment vehicle and respondents' degree of certainty.
    Keywords: National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Greece); Contingent Valuation; Biodiversity Conservation; Payment Vehicle Effect; Polychotomous Choice; Respondent Certainty
    Date: 2009–09
  2. By: Kathleen M. Jennings (Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies); Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic (Victimological Society of Serbia)
    Abstract: “Peacekeeping economies” have not been subject to much analysis of either their economic or socio-cultural and political impacts. This paper uses a gendered lens to explore some ramifications and lasting implications of peacekeeping economies, drawing on examples from four post-conflict countries with past or ongoing United Nations peacekeeping missions: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, and Haiti. The paper is particularly concerned with the interplay between the peacekeeping economy and the sex industry. It examines some of the characteristics and impacts of peacekeeping economies, arguing that these are highly gendered – but that the “normalization” of peacekeeping economies allows these effects to be overlooked or obscured. It also contends that these gendered characteristics and impacts have (or are likely to have) broad and lasting consequences. Finally, the paper considers the initial impacts of UN efforts to tackle negative impacts of peacekeeping economies, particularly the zero-tolerance policy against sexual exploitation and the effort to “mainstream” gender and promote gender equality in and through peacekeeping. The paper suggests that the existence and potential longterm perpetuation of a highly gendered peacekeeping economy threatens to undermine the gender goals and objectives that are a component of most peace operations.
    Keywords: Peacekeeping; Gender; Sex industry; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Kosovo; Liberia; Haiti
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Katherine Scholfield; Dan Brockington
    Abstract: This paper presents an attempt to provide a first overview of the collective activities of conservation non-government organisations (NGOs) working in Sub-Saharan Africa, presenting findings on the work of over 280 organisations. The number of NGOs in existence grew in the 1980s and blossomed in the 1990s. Their distribution across the continent is patchy. NGOs work in about 14 percent of the continent’s protected areas. Estimated average annual expenditure from 2004 to 2006 was just over US$200 million. This is at most about 40 percent of the lowest predicted needs, and these predictions are themselves likely to be substantial underestimates of the sums required for effective conservation by conservation NGOs. Spending by country matches some declared conservation priorities well, without taking into account cost of doing conservation in different countries. In our concluding discussion we examine the diversity of the conservation NGO sector. We argue that the sector will probably need to scale up its activities by one order of magnitude to achieve its stated goals. We offer reasons why this might not be such an impossible task. But we also note that the possibility of more funding raises a number of awkward questions. These include: is money being spent effectively now? Does scaling-up mean more money to existing organisations or a whole set of new ones? More fundamentally, many studies have noted that there are numerous problems associated with existing levels and patterns of expenditure. Scaling up NGO activity will not deal with these problems, they could make many worse. We argue that the problems will be best addressed by recognising them explicitly.
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Gatti, Silvia
    Keywords: reputation, wine, appellation, Italy, Demand and Price Analysis,
    Date: 2009–09
  5. By: Rotaru, Marius-Petre
    Abstract: In 2004, Frits Bolkenstein, former European Commissioner for the Internal Market, brought in the attention of the European Commission “The Services Directive in the Internal Market”. The purpose of this directive was to liberalize the services’ market in the EU, a major regulated field, whose goal was to develop the European economy into a more dynamic and competitive type of economy. “The Services Directive” aims the decreasing of the barriers and obstacles faced by the providers of services, especially in the case of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), by simplifying the administrative procedures, the management cooperation among member-states, improving the services’ quality and revising the national legislation. After more than 2 years of debates and amendments, the directive was adopted on December 12, 2006, by the European Parliament and the Council, as Directive 2006/123/EC, and ought to be implemented no later than December 28, 2009.
    Keywords: Services Directive; Free Movement of Services; European Union; European Social Model; Bolkestein Directive;
    JEL: L89
    Date: 2009–05–30

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