nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2008‒12‒07
two papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. The gap between male and female pay in the Spanish tourism industry By Fernando Munoz-Bullon

  1. By: Fernando Munoz-Bullon
    Abstract: This paper analyzes wage differentials between male and female workers in the Spanish tourism industry, using a large, administratively matched employer-employee data set obtained from a representative sample of companies. This allows us to control for unobserved firm-specific factors likely to affect the magnitude of the gender wage gap. Our findings indicate that male workers earn on average 6.7% higher monthly wages than their socially comparable female counterparts. In particular, the type of contract held, the qualifications required for the job and the specific sub-sector of employment are very important variables in explaining this gender wage difference. We also find that only around 12% of the mean wage difference in the tourism industry cannot be explained by differences in observable characteristics, which is well below the average for the rest of the industries in Spain (87%). Our interpretation is that minimum wage legislation provides a particularly effective protection to women in the tourism industry, which is characterized by a large number of low-wage earners.
    Keywords: Spanish tourism industry, Wage discrimination, Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, Censored models
    JEL: C34 J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2008–11
  2. By: Verghese, Shalet; MG, Chandrakanth
    Abstract: Conceptual development in the theory of externalities have opened up several policy options for their internalization including payment towards environmental services. Hence as externalities are social costs, accountability is crucial in increasing environmental awareness and for collective action through education and extension more so in developing countries. Here a modest attempt has been made to estimate externalities in water, forests and environment with field data from peninsular India to refl ect on the economic perception of externalities by farmers and users of environment for the consideration of policy makers to devise institutions for payment towards environmental services. The methodology largely used here in estimation / valuation of externalities is by considering €طith €Ӡwithout€٠situations (including €آefore €Ӡafter€٠in some cases) akin to €ذroject valuation€ٮ Studies cover empirical estimation of externalities inter alia due to over extraction of groundwater , sand mining, watershed development, conservation of forests, sacred groves, cultivation of organic coffee, use of medicinal plants as alternate medicines and the annual values presented are in 2008 prices. The negative externality due to sand mining 24 ‚̠per acre, that due to distillery effluent pollution is 34 ‚̠per acre. The positive externality due to watershed program is around 51 ‚̠per acre, and that due to rehabilitation of irrigation tanks is 26 ‚̠per acre. The positive externality due to cultivation of shade coffee is 9 ‚̠per acre and that due to forest conservation 27 ‚̠per acre. The positive externality due to sacred grove conservation was 12 ‚̠per family. The impact of forest conservation on Non timber forest products was 88 ‚̠/ per tribal household. The positive externality due to use of medicinal plants as alternate medicine is equal to 35 ‚̠per patient suffering from osteo-arthritis and 19 ‚̠per patient suffering from peptic-ulcer. While these estimates are not sacro sanct as the methodologies for valuation of externalities are subject to further review and improvement, they however serve as initial indicators of spillovers. And they signal possibilities for consideration of policy makers for devising alternate institutions for potential payment towards environmental services.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Externalities, Environmental services, Sustainable development,
    Date: 2008–08–25

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