nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2008‒08‒06
four papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Effects of Tourism Upon the Economy of Small and Medium-Sized European Cities. Cultural Tourists and “The Others” By Elena Bellini; Barbara Del Corpo; Ugo Gasparino; William Malizia
  2. Measuring the Impact of Tourism Upon Urban Economies: A Review of Literature By Ugo Gasparino; Elena Bellini; Barbara Del Corpo; William Malizia
  3. Bowling in Hawaii: Examining the Effectiveness of Sports-Based Tourism Strategies By Robert Baumann; Victor Matheson; Chihiro Muroi
  4. Attendance to cultural events and spousal influences: the Italian case By Elisabetta Lazzaro; Carlofilippo Frateschi

  1. By: Elena Bellini (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Barbara Del Corpo (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Ugo Gasparino (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); William Malizia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: The paper presents the results of the application of an Input-Output-based approach for the estimation of direct, indirect and induced effects of tourist spending on local economies, in a static partial equilibrium setting. The methodology has been successfully applied in three case studies – Bergen (Norway), Elche (Spain), Syracuse (Italy) –, in the framework of the 6th FP project PICTURE (Pro-active management of the Impact of Cultural Tourism upon Urban Resources and Economies), in order to quantify the monetary impact of cultural tourism upon urban economies. The analysis was carried out in two major steps: firstly, interviews to tourists in each case study city, in order to estimate the scale and variability of the spending patterns of different profiles of visitors (e.g., culture-driven vs. leisure tourists); secondly, application of the Input-Output model of the economy of concern (eventually re-scaling the matrix at the Region or County level) to quantify the effects of tourist expenditure on sales, income and employment for the several impacted economic sectors. Tourists driven by cultural interest are often assumed, in literature, to have a higher than average income and to spend more on holiday. The paper reports the main findings of the analysis, discussing them against the “cultural tourist” stereotype. The analysis aims at assisting local decision makers in identifying the value of different tourist typologies to their region, in understanding how different sectors of local economy and society can benefit from tourism and in determining how to maximise, or more equally redistribute, the positive impact.
    Keywords: Tourism, Cultural Tourism, Economic Impacts, Input-Output Analysis
    JEL: C67 R15 L83 D12
    Date: 2008–05
  2. By: Ugo Gasparino (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Elena Bellini (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Barbara Del Corpo (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); William Malizia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: Tourism is increasingly seen as a potential lever towards high economic growth, measured both in terms of income and employment. In recent years, interest in tourism has spread rapidly throughout many small and medium European cities, which previously have not considered themselves as tourist destinations. This paper reviews and summarises the existing literature on the economic assessment of tourism with the objectives of, firstly, identifying the main categories of impacts and, secondly, constructing an inventory of methodologies available to assess them. We will progress step by step, starting from the most simplistic approaches and relaxing assumptions as we proceed. Firstly, we assume a static setting, with spare capacity. In such a setting (partial equilibrium), prices do not respond to demand shocks: only quantities (production, income and jobs) adjust. Secondly, we relax this assumption and assume that there is no spare capacity: prices respond to increasing demand (general equilibrium), leading to reallocation of resources across sectors. We then move from a static to a dynamic setting and survey those contributions that look at the relationship between tourism specialisation and long-run growth.
    Keywords: Tourism, Economic Impacts, Input-Output Analysis, General and Partial Equilibrium Analaysis
    JEL: B41 C67 C68 L83
    Date: 2008–06
  3. By: Robert Baumann (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross); Victor Matheson (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross); Chihiro Muroi (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross)
    Abstract: We use daily airplane arrival data from Hawaii’s Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism to determine the net change in tourism for a variety of sporting events. We find two events generate a positive and significant net impact on arrivals: Honolulu Marathon and Pro Bowl. We estimate that the Honolulu Marathon produces between 2,183 and 6,519 in net arrivals while the Pro Bowl attracts about 5,595 to 6,725 in net arrivals. At the upper end of our estimates, the Honolulu Marathon and the Pro Bowl attract a nearly identical number of visitors despite the fact that the HTA spends nearly two-thirds of its budget on the rights to the Pro Bowl and spends nothing for the Hawaii Marathon. Neither event attracts the number of net arrivals claimed by its sponsor, and other sporting events do not generate any identifiable impact on tourist arrivals whatsoever.
    Keywords: sports, stadiums, impact analysis, mega-event, tourism, marathons, Pro Bowl
    JEL: L83 O18 R53
    Date: 2008–07
  4. By: Elisabetta Lazzaro (University of Padua); Carlofilippo Frateschi (University of Padua)
    Abstract: In cultural consumption it is quite reasonable to expect that the formation and the evolution of preferences, and the related individual choice behaviour, is affected by various interactions within families, peer and other social groups. Our investigation focuses on a specific form of "indirect" interaction effect, that is the reciprocal influence that a married person's preferences and characteristics can have on the cultural consumption of her/his partner. Using the last two available nationwide crosssection datasets on the leisure activities of the Italian population (ISTAT, 1995 and 2000), we estimate the mutual influence of spouses's educational and cultural background, besides other factors, on the consumption of three kinds of cultural activities, namely museum/exhibition, theatre, and opera and classical music concerts.
    Keywords: Mutual social interactions, cultural consumption
    JEL: D79 D12 Z11
    Date: 2008–07

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