nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2007‒02‒24
seven papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. How Fast are Small Tourist Countries Growing? The 1980-2003 Evidence By Francesco Pigliaru; Rinaldo Brau; Alessandro Lanza
  2. Tourism in the Canary Islands: Forecasting Using Several Seasonal Time Series Models By Juncal Cuñado; Luis A. Gil-Alaña
  3. Dinámica evolutiva en un modelo de interacción entre visitantes y residentes de una localidad turística By Elvio Accinelli; Juan Gabriel Brida; Edgar Carrera; Lionello Punzo
  4. Economic Valuation of Environmental Values of the Landscape Development and Protection Area of Volcji Potok By Verbic, Miroslav; Erker, Renata
  5. The Impacts of Sector-Specific Policies and Regulations on the Growth of SMES in Eight Sectors of the South African Economy By SBP
  6. Must-Take Cards and the Tourist Test By Jean-Charles Rochet; Jean Tirole
  7. The cross-country effects of EU holidays on domestic GDP's By Giancarlo Bruno; Claudio Lupi; Carmine Pappalardo; Gianfranco Piras

  1. By: Francesco Pigliaru (University of Cagliari); Rinaldo Brau (University of Cagliari); Alessandro Lanza (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and CRENoS)
    Abstract: We analyze the empirical relationship between growth, country size and tourism specialization by using a dataset covering the period 1980-2003. We find that tourism countries grow significantly faster than all the other sub-groups considered in our analysis. Tourism appears to be an independent determining factor for growth, and the reason for that is neither because they are poorer than the average, nor because they are very open to trade. Another finding of our paper is that small states are fast-growing only when they are highly specialized in tourism. In contrast with some previous conclusions in the literature, smallness per se is not good for growth.
    Keywords: Small States, Growth, Tourism, Cross Country Comparisons
    JEL: F43 O57
    Date: 2007–01
  2. By: Juncal Cuñado (Universidad de Navarra); Luis A. Gil-Alaña (Universidad de Navarra)
    Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of the number of tourists travelling to the Canary Islands by means of using different seasonal statistical models. Deterministic and stochastic seasonality is considered. For the latter case, we employ seasonal unit roots and seasonally fractionally integrated models. As a final approach, we also employ a model with possibly different orders of integration at zero and the seasonal frequencies. All these models are compared in terms of their forecasting ability in an out-of-sample experiment. The results in the paper show that a simple deterministic model with seasonal dummy variables and AR(1) disturbances produce better results than other approaches based on seasonal fractional and integer differentiation over short horizons. However, increasing the time horizon, the results cannot distinguish between the model based on seasonal dummies and another using fractional integration at zero and the seasonal frequencies.
  3. By: Elvio Accinelli (Departamento de Economía, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana); Juan Gabriel Brida (School of Economics and Management, Free University of Bolzano, Italy); Edgar Carrera (Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, México); Lionello Punzo (Dipartamento di Economia Politica, Universitá di Siena, Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper we model tourism development in the framework of multi- population dynamics and analyze the time pattern of its impact as the evolution of the interaction between two populations feeding over the same space-resource. Each population might be structured in two (or more) ?clubs? with variable membership, a club being a group of population members sharing social and economic interests as to the management of the relevant resource. Thus, each club has in principle a di¤erent set of strategies as to protection and valorization of broadly de?ned environmental resources at the tourist destination. Such resources share some of the characteristics of the so called commons. To represent such peculiar situation, we use Evolutionary Game Theory, in particular as is applied to the theory of evolution of interacting structured populations. In one such game, one strategy will be characterized as conservative and its alternative as depredative. Interaction between di¤erent strategies and the corresponding playing clubs gives rise to a rich dynamics, as some joint outcomes are inherently unstable, as is known, others being evolutionary stable. Such situation will be modelled by a version of the well known replicator dynamics, to emphasize its evolutionary nature.
    Keywords: ecuación del replicador, dinámica de imitación, sostenibilidad del turismo
    JEL: C72 C73 D74 L83
    Date: 2006–11
  4. By: Verbic, Miroslav; Erker, Renata
    Abstract: When the market for a certain good is competitive enough, economic activities can be studied by the market pricing mechanism. Because this is usually not feasible in case of environmental goods with embodied natural and cultural heritage, particular methods for economic valuation of such goods have to be applied. The present article represents the economic valuation of the Landscape Development and Protection Area of Vol誩 Potok, which is an important Slovenian cultural landscape area with internationally recognized characteristics. For this purpose we have chosen the method of contingent valuation and performed an econometric analysis of stated and true willingness-to-pay. We obtained the value of willingness-to-pay and determined its determinants. We also made an attempt to control for different biases that arise in such analyses. At last, we used the adjusted average individual value of willingness-to-pay to calculate the aggregate willingness-to-pay.
    Keywords: bivariate probit model; contingent valuation method; discrete choice method; embedding effects; environmental values; starting point bias; willingness-to-pay
    JEL: Q51 Q56 C51
    Date: 2007–01
  5. By: SBP (Strategic Business Partnerships for Growth in Africa)
    Abstract: Abstract: The paper aims to identify the impacts of sector-specific policies and regulations on the growth of – and job creation by – SMEs in eight sectors of the South African economy. Where appropriate and, where possible, impacts are quantified. The aim is also to develop suggestions for policy changes and regulatory reforms which would reduce the regulatory cost burden on these SMEs and permit them to grow and take on workers more readily. The paper contains descriptions of sector-specific policies and regulations in the eight selected sectors, qualitative assessment of the impacts of sector-specific policies and regulations on SMEs in the the selected sectors, quantitative assessment of these impacts and suggestions are made for policy changes and reforms to the sector-specific regulatory environments of the selected sectors. The eight sectors are agri-processing, the automotive industry, clothing and textiles, financial services, information and communications technology (ICT), mining, pharmaceuticals and tourism.
    Keywords: Sector-Specific Policies and Regulations, SMEs
    JEL: A1
    Date: 2006–07
  6. By: Jean-Charles Rochet; Jean Tirole
    Abstract: Antitrust authorities often argue that merchants cannot reasonably turn down payment cards and therefore are forced to accept unacceptably high merchant discounts. The paper attempts to shed light on this “must-take cards” view from two angles. First, the paper gives some operational content to the notion of “must-take card” through the “tourist test” (would the merchant want to refuse a card payment when a non-repeat customer with enough cash in her pocket is about to pay at the cash register?) and analyzes its relevance as an indicator of excessive interchange fees. Second, it identifies four key sources of potential social biases in the payment card associations' determination of interchange fees: internalization by merchants of a fraction of cardholder surplus, issuers' per-transaction markup, merchant heterogeneity, and extent of cardholder multi-homing. It compares the industry and social optima both in the short term (fixed number of issuers) and the long term (in which issuer offerings and entry respond to profitability).
    Keywords: Card payment systems; interchange fee; internalization; multi-homing; tourist test.
    JEL: L10 D40 O30
    Date: 2007–01
  7. By: Giancarlo Bruno (ISAE - Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses); Claudio Lupi (University of Molise, Dept. SEGeS, Faculty of Economics); Carmine Pappalardo (ISAE - Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses); Gianfranco Piras (University of Pescara, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: The number and the distribution of non-working days during the year has recently entered the policy debate related to the slow pace of the European economy.The fact that the number of non-working days can affect the quarter to quarter performance of GDP is well known and hardly disputable. It has recently been argued that not only domestic holidays can in principle be important in each single economy, but also foreign ones, as far as there exist strict connections among the national economies. Given the existing evidence at the national level relative to the influence of calendar effects on GDP, the first step of the econometric analysis in the present research is a check on the existence (and significance) of international spillover effects. Our investigation uses both structural time series models and the ARIMA model-based approach. These two different approaches are used jointly and their specific features are exploited to represent and estimate the time series components of our interest. The empirical evidence does not support the spillover hypothesis.
    Keywords: trading days effects, national accounts, international spillover effects
    JEL: C22 E01 E32
    Date: 2006–02

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