nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2006‒03‒05
five papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
Universita di Bologna

  1. Employment, Pay and Discrimination in the Tourism Industry By Luís Delfim Santos; José Varejão
  2. Tourism specialization and environmental sustainability in a dynamic economy By Fabio Cerina
  3. The Willingness to Pay to Remove Billboards and Improve Mountain Views By Peter A. Groothuis; Jana D. Groothuis; John C. Whitehead
  4. Are non-use values distance-independent? Identifying the market area using a choice modelling experiment By Giovanni B. Concu
  5. Investigating distance effects on environmental values: A choice modelling approach By Giovanni B. Concu

  1. By: Luís Delfim Santos (CEMPRE, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); José Varejão (CETE, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)
    Abstract: Using a large administrative matched employer-employee dataset we analyse the gender wage gap in the Portuguese tourism labour market. As background, employment and pay in the tourism industry is thoroughly characterized. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the gender wage gap, we find that 45 percent of the gap is due to differences in attributes of male and female workers in tourism. Our estimate of the coefficient of discrimination in the tourism industry (8.4 percent) puts it well below the non-tourism average (15.8).
    Keywords: tourism, labour market, gender discrimination
    JEL: L83 J71
    Date: 2006–02
  2. By: Fabio Cerina
    Abstract: This study focuses on the dynamic behaviour of a small open economy specialized in tourism based on natural resources when tourist services are supplied to foreign tourists who are crowding-averse and care for the environment. We analyse the steady-state properties of the model and a unique locally saddle-point equilibrium is found for both the market and the central planner solution. Then we compare the effects of two policies aiming at improving the market solution: in the first the government poses a corrective tax on residents' income and then redistributes the tax gains with lump-sum transfers while, in the second, the government taxes residents' income and employs the tax gains in pollution abatement technology. We find that the first policy is able to direct the economy towards its first-best dynamic path but the second policy, by relaxing the dynamic constraint on the environment, yields a higher steady-state utility when the externality effects and/or the natural regeneration rate of the environmental asset are low enough. Both policies, insofar they lead to an increase in tourists' willingness to pay, might work as an "implicit" tourist tax paid by tourists, with the difference that the first policy always leads to to this result, while the second obtains it only when tourists' aversion to crowding is not too high.
    Keywords: Tourism Specialization, Sustainability, Environment, Taxation, Crowding, Pollution Abatement
    JEL: H23 L83 O41 Q26 Q56
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Peter A. Groothuis; Jana D. Groothuis; John C. Whitehead
    Abstract: We use the contingent valuation method to measure the amount citizens are willing to pay to improve mountain-view aesthetics through the removal of billboards. Our approach addresses both the perceived property rights as well as the perceptions of the status quo in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We find that individuals who retire to the mountains have different preferences for land use and mountain views than individuals who have ancestors who lived in Watauga County. In the aggregate, we find that citizens are willing to pay up almost one-half million dollars to remove billboards from Watauga County roadsides. This study provides insights to the debate surrounding land use in the mountains.
    Date: 2006
  4. By: Giovanni B. Concu (Risk and Sustainable Management Group, University of Queensland)
    Abstract: This article tests for the effect of distance on non-use values using a Choice Modelling (CM) experiment. Estimating a distance decay relationship for non-use values (NUVs) is important because it would define the market area for an environmental good, i.e. identify the limits for aggregating individual benefit estimates. In contrast to the common definition of NUVs as non-usersÕ values, the CM experiment designs the environmental attributes so that NUV changes can be disentangled from Use Value (UV) changes. The experiment also allows for testing different specification of the distance covariates. Data are obtained from a geographically representative sample. Results show that NUVs do not depend on distance. Aggregation of NUVs is based on income and individualsÕ environmental attitudes.
    Keywords: choice modelling, non-use values, aggregation, distance, geographical sampling.
    JEL: Q51 Q58
    Date: 2005–12
  5. By: Giovanni B. Concu (Risk and Sustainable Management Group, University of Queensland)
    Abstract: This paper describes a Choice Modelling experiment set up to investigate the relationship between distance and willingness to pay for environmental quality changes. The issue is important for the estimation and transfer of benefits. So far the problem has been analysed through the use of Contingent Valuation-type of experiments, producing mixed results. The Choice Modelling experiment allows testing distance effects on parameters of environmental attributes that imply different trade-offs between use and non-use values. The sampling procedure is designed to provide a Ògeographically balancedÓ sample. Several specifications of the distance covariate are compared and distance effects are shown to take complex shapes. Welfare analysis also shows that disregarding distance produces under-estimation of individual and aggregated benefits and losses, seriously hindering the reliability of costbenefit analyses.
    Keywords: choice Modelling techniques, distance, aggregation, sampling, functional forms.
    JEL: Q51 Q58
    Date: 2005–12

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