nep-tre New Economics Papers
on Transport Economics
Issue of 2023‒12‒04
thirteen papers chosen by
Erik Teodoor Verhoef, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

  1. Mode substitution induced by electric mobility hubs: results from Amsterdam By Fanchao Liao; Jaap Vleugel; Gustav B\"osehans; Dilum Dissanayake; Neil Thorpe; Margaret Bell; Bart van Arem; Gon\c{c}alo Homem de Almeida Correia
  2. Transforming Mobility Exploring the Impact and Challenges of Intelligent Transportation Systems in Asia By Joise, Topu; Goenka, Narsimha; Wangyel, Sangay; Shaturaev, Jakhongir
  3. Multitasking while driving: a time use study of commuting knowledge workers to access current and future uses By Andrew L. Kun; Raffaella Sadun; Orit Shaer; Thomaz Teodorovicz
  4. When is High Turnover Cheaper? A Simple Model of Cost Tradeoffs in a Long-Distance Truckload Motor Carrier, With Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications By Stephen V. Burks; Arne Kildegaard; Jason W. Miller; Kristen Monaco
  5. Encouraging adoption of fuel-efficient vehicles – A policy reform evaluation from Ethiopia By Tesemma, Tewodros
  6. Finding a better renewal time and improved contract design for switches and crossings By Odolinski, Kristofer; Nissen, Arne; Ait-Ali, Abderrahman
  7. High-Speed Railways and Firms Total Factor Productivity: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment By Bottasso, Anna; Conti, Maurizio; Ferrara, Antonella Rita; Robbiano, Simone
  8. The Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for Transit Oriented Development of Railway Station in Malaysia By Badariah Din
  9. Do Congested Ports Cause Higher Shipping Costs? By Maggie Isaacson; Hannah Rubinton
  10. Can a low emission zone improve academic performance? Evidence from a natural experiment in the city of Madrid By Manuel T. Valdés; Mar C. Espadafor; Risto Conte Keivabu
  11. The Role of Clean Fuel Systems in a California Hydrogen Transition: A Comparison of Hydrogen, Synthetic Natural Gas, and Related Fuels By Burke, Andrew; Fulton, Lewis
  12. New Ways of Working and Infrastructure Improvements: Implications for Urban Markets By Xiaodan Liu; Anupam Nanda; Sotirios Thanos
  13. Do Bicycle Networks Have Economic Value? A Hedonic Application to Greater Manchester By Hearne, David; Yerushalmi, Erez

  1. By: Fanchao Liao; Jaap Vleugel; Gustav B\"osehans; Dilum Dissanayake; Neil Thorpe; Margaret Bell; Bart van Arem; Gon\c{c}alo Homem de Almeida Correia
    Abstract: Electric mobility hubs (eHUBS) are locations where multiple shared electric modes including electric cars and e-bikes are available. To assess their potential to reduce private car use, it is important to investigate to what extent people would switch to eHUBS modes after their introduction. Moreover, people may adapt their behaviour differently depending on their current travel mode. This study is based on stated preference data collected in Amsterdam. We analysed the data using mixed logit models. We found users of different modes not only have a varied general preference for different shared modes, but also have different sensitivity for attributes such as travel time and cost. Compared to car users, public transport users are more likely to switch towards the eHUBS modes. People who bike and walk have strong inertia, but the percentage choosing eHUBS modes doubles when the trip distance is longer (5 or 10 km).
    Date: 2023–10
  2. By: Joise, Topu; Goenka, Narsimha; Wangyel, Sangay; Shaturaev, Jakhongir
    Abstract: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have emerged as a transformative force revolutionizing mobility and transportation trends in Asia. This conceptual paper explores the current state of transportation infrastructure, traffic congestion, and environmental concerns in the region. Additionally, it analyzes the impact of ITS in enhancing efficiency, safety, sustainability, and accessibility. The paper investigates the challenges hindering widespread ITS adoption and proposes strategies to overcome these barriers. Through case studies from various Asian countries, it highlights successful implementation and identifies policy implications. The paper concludes by emphasizing the crucial role of government policies, public-private partnerships, and technological innovations in shaping the future of transportation systems in Asia.
    Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems; Mobility; Transportation trends; Asia; Transportation infrastructure; Traffic congestion
    JEL: H4 R40 R41 R49
    Date: 2023–06–08
  3. By: Andrew L. Kun; Raffaella Sadun; Orit Shaer; Thomaz Teodorovicz
    Abstract: Commuting has enormous impact on individuals, families, organizations, and society. Advances in vehicle automation may help workers employ the time spent commuting in productive work-tasks or wellbeing activities. To achieve this goal, however, we need to develop a deeper understanding of which work and personal activities are of value for commuting workers. In this paper we present results from an online time-use study of 400 knowledge workers who commute-by-driving. The data allow us to study multitasking-while-driving behavior of com-muting knowledge workers, identify which non-driving tasks knowledge workers currently engage in while driving, and the non-driving tasks individuals would like to engage in when using a safe highly automated vehicle in the future. We discuss the implications of our findings for the design of technology that supports work and wellbeing activities in automated cars.
    Keywords: In-vehicle user interfaces, time-use study, automated vehicles, knowledge workers, commuting
    Date: 2022–03–30
  4. By: Stephen V. Burks (University of Minnesota Morris); Arne Kildegaard (University of Minnesota Morris); Jason W. Miller (Michigan State University); Kristen Monaco (Federal Maritime Commission)
    Abstract: The U.S. trucking industry has been calling out a shortage of truck drivers for nearly forty years, since soon after its economic deregulation in 1980. Burks and Monaco (2019) provided evidence that the overall truck driver labor market works about as well as any blue collar labor market, and suggested persistently high driver turnover uniquely at long-distance truckload firms (central to long distance freight but employing only 20% of tractor-trailer truckers) drives the shortage perception. The American Trucking Associations (ATA) agreed with the location of the problem, but argued that a driver shortage and high turnover are distinct, and that a long-term shortage does exist. We review the evidence for a shortage and find it unconvincing. We also review empirical evidence that long-distance truckload has had persistently high-turnover since the mid-1980s. To explain this, we provide a simple model of long-distance truckload cost minimization in which there is a tradeoff between the costs of turnover and two other costs, higher pay to offset bad working conditions (compensating differentials), and running trucks out-of-route to get drivers home regularly (inefficient capital use). We show that high turnover is likely structural because it is part of the least-cost mixture. We then use our model to analyze the potential impacts of two technological changes (truck simulators and partially automated trucks), and a key policy championed by the ATA to “fix the shortage, ” interstate teenaged truckers. We show that these are likely to have results opposite to those the industry and policy makers expect.
    Keywords: long-distance motor carrier; driver turnover; driver shortage; truckload; less-thantruckload; costs; teenaged truck drivers; partially automated trucks; Truck Transportation
  5. By: Tesemma, Tewodros (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: The extent of vehicle ownership is increasing in many <p> developing countries. Most of the increase takes place <p> through import of second-hand vehicles that are usually <p> fuel-inefficient and have poor emissions standards. This is <p> creating enormous environmental pressures, since most <p> developing countries also lack the necessary policies to <p> regulate the sector. This study investigates the effect of <p> a recent policy reform in Ethiopia that aimed at <p> encouraging adoption of cleaner vehicles. In March 2020, <p> Ethiopia introduced a new vehicle excise tax that linked the <p> excise tax rate to engine size and age of vehicles, <p> imposing lower rates on ‘fuel-efficient’ vehicles and higher <p> rates on ‘fuel-inefficient’ ones. Exploiting the <p> quasiexperimental nature of the reform and employing a <p> difference-in-differences design, the study investigates the <p> reform’s effect on vehicle ownership and composition of the <p> vehicles, and in reducing CO2 emissions. The results show <p> that while the reform has no significant effect on total <p> vehicle ownership, it has a significant effect in increasing <p> the adoption of newer vehicles. We also find no significant <p> increase in the adoption of smaller-engine vehicles. The <p> reformled to no significant reduction on CO2 emissions <p> intensity of the vehicles. The reform, however, <p> significantly increased adoption of small-engine but new <p> vehicles - relatively the most ‘fuel-efficient’ <p> alternatives. The results are robust to various robustness <p> checks. The study discusses the policy implications of the <p> results, especially for developing countries.
    Keywords: transportation; environment; policy instruments; developing countries
    JEL: H23 Q40 Q58
    Date: 2023–11
  6. By: Odolinski, Kristofer (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI)); Nissen, Arne (Trafikverket (The Swedish Transport Administration)); Ait-Ali, Abderrahman (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI))
    Abstract: Switches and crossings are critical assets in railway systems and their maintenance and renewal costs can be substantial. This paper evaluates the economic impact of cumulative loads on such assets and the effect of different contract designs for railway maintenance. Results from survival analyses are combined with a life cycle costing model to analyse costs for maintenance, train delays, and renewals. The findings provide insights into improving the timing of asset renewal as well as the impact of different reimbursement rules in the design of maintenance contracts. The estimated optimal lifetimes of different types of switches and crossings are similar to their technical lifetimes, yet there a couple of exceptions. The estimated effects of the reimbursement rule provide unique results on the risk premiums allowed in order to achieve a break-even between different maintenance contract designs.
    Keywords: Switches and crossings; Maintenance; Renewal; Lifecycle costs; Contract design; Reimbursement rule
    JEL: H57 R42
    Date: 2023–11–15
  7. By: Bottasso, Anna (University of Genoa); Conti, Maurizio (University of Genoa); Ferrara, Antonella Rita (University of Calabria); Robbiano, Simone (University of Eastern Piedmont)
    Abstract: The focus of this study is to assess the causal impact of the connection of a local area to a high-speed rail network (HSR) on firms' total factor productivity (TFP). The quasi-random location of the HSR station in the Italian city of Reggio Emilia is exploited in a Difference-in Differences (DiD) research design applied to a large sample of firms, observed over the period 2010-2018. The results suggest that the opening of the HSR station improved treated firms' TFP of about 5%; in particular, such effect is larger for firms closer to the HSR station and slightly increases over the sample period. We also find that the impact of the connection to the HSR station is heterogeneous across industries and depends on firms' size and past productivity. Overall results are robust to a large number of sensitivity checks and falsification tests.
    Keywords: transport infrastructure, Difference-in-Differences, total factor productivity
    JEL: C50 D24 L92 R30
    Date: 2023–11
  8. By: Badariah Din
    Abstract: Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is gaining wide acceptance by many state’s governments in Malaysia due to its potential to create a liveable neighbourhood with enhanced mobility. Therefore, the present study to examine criteria that are considered critical for the success of TOD adoptions based on integrated perceptions from residents and retail operators who live nearby or work at the selected northern KTM commuter stations in Malaysia. The data for this study were gathered from a survey on 360 residents who used the Northern KTM commuter train service. Descriptive and inferential technique was performed to analyse the data and produce the findings. The findings of this study shown that there were significant differences in travel behaviour patterns (companions, frequencies, and walking durations) with respect to respondents’ travel purposes. Moreover, it was revealed that land-use diversity and walkable design as important TOD principles that contribute to their quality of life. Besides residents’ perspectives, the present study also considered the retail operators’ viewpoints in estimating the impact of TOD adoption on quality of life. Unlike residents’ perspectives, retail operators’ quality of life was assessed in terms of business performance and business well-being. “Density” principle showed positive impacts on both retailers’ business performance and business well-being. The findings of this research would serve as a base but critical information to direct future National Estate Development Plan.
    Keywords: critical success factors; Malaysia; Quality of Lifer; transit-oriented development
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  9. By: Maggie Isaacson; Hannah Rubinton
    Abstract: An analysis of changes in the cost to ship to major U.S. ports suggests that rising costs varied more by the country of origin than by the port of entry.
    Keywords: shipping costs
    Date: 2022–04–19
  10. By: Manuel T. Valdés; Mar C. Espadafor; Risto Conte Keivabu (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: -In late 2018, the government of Madrid instituted a low emission zone (LEZ) in the central district of the city, aiming primarily to alleviate traffic-related emissions and enhance air quality. Extensive research has documented the adverse effects of air pollution on academic performance. Consequently, the success of Madrid’s LEZ in reducing traffic-related emissions could potentially translate into improved performance among students schooled in the designated area. Through a difference-in-differences design, we demonstrate the policy's effectiveness in improving air quality during the four years following its implementation. Subsequently, we show a noteworthy increase of 0.17 standard deviations in the average EvAU scores (high-stakes examinations for university admittance) of high schools within the LEZ, a crucial advantage for gaining entry into the most competitive university programs. Importantly, our findings reveal positive spillover effects in the surroundings of the LEZ area and a larger effect the longer and earlier the exposure to cleaner air. In sum, our study offers compelling empirical evidence of the beneficial educational impacts resulting from the implementation of a low emission zone successful in improving air quality.
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Burke, Andrew; Fulton, Lewis
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, clean fuel, hydrogen, transportation fuel, synthetic natural gas
    Date: 2023–11–01
  12. By: Xiaodan Liu; Anupam Nanda; Sotirios Thanos
    Abstract: Distance and commuting costs are well-established as key determinants of location choice for place of work and place of residence. However, technological changes in recent decades have greatly affected these factors. Moreover, triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, the widespread adoption of various forms of flexible working, work-from-home (WFH), and hybrid working, enabled by digital infrastructure and services, has been increasingly evident in our daily lives and appears to be prevailing even after the pandemic. As workers are increasingly able to choose residence locations farther away from the place they work, it raises a significant question: how are urban markets affected by the introduction of new ways of working and infrastructure improvements? In this study, a simple two-city model is employed for analysing the patterns of induced changes in aggregate population and employment levels and their impacts on property prices and rents. We also analyse the implications for productivity and the provision of local amenities and look at the possibility of the inequality gap widening due to varying levels of access to new work patterns. This research has substantial implications for policy-making and investment decisions.
    Keywords: infrastructure improvements; new urban equilibrium; work patterns
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  13. By: Hearne, David; Yerushalmi, Erez
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the association between proximity to bicycle networks and house prices in Greater Manchester using hedonic and spatial regressions. Given the challenges of congestion and pollution, many cities across the world are implementing policies to improve bicycling facilities and other active modes of transport. Bicycle lanes are a solution that could potentially provide significant amenities to residents, but they require investment and the appropriation of limited land. Drawing on a large dataset of approximately 253, 000 transactions, over a 9-year period, we find that a 1 km reduction in distance to the nearest bicycle network is associated with property values being around 3.2% higher, on average, and 7.3% higher in the central borough of Manchester. We also provide an applied example to rank new bicycle routes by comparing their benefit-to-cost ratios.
    Date: 2023–11–07

This nep-tre issue is ©2023 by Erik Teodoor Verhoef. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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