nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2021‒10‒25
eight papers chosen by
Maksym Obrizan
Kyiv School of Economics

  1. The transmission of euro area monetary policy to financially euroised countries By Moder, Isabella
  2. A Simple EU Model in EViews By Fritz Breuss
  3. Stable marriage in the eyes of the law By Mikhail Freer; Khushboo Surana
  4. Income Comparison and Happiness within Households By Salland, Jan
  5. The drivers of SME innovation in the regions of the EU By Hervás-oliver, José-luis; Parrilli, Mario Davide; Rodríguez-pose, Andrés; Sempere-ripoll, Francisca
  6. Organisation of public administration: Agency governance, autonomy and accountability By Jesper Johnsøn; Lech Marcinkowski; Dawid Sześciło
  7. Health, an ageing labour force, and the economy: does health moderate the relationship between population age-structure and economic growth? By Cylus, Jonathan; Al Tayara, Lynn
  8. Sharing Economy in Lithuania: Steady Development with Focus on Transportation Sector By Česnuitytė, Vida; Dromantienė, Leta; Bernotas, Dainius; Banytė, Jūratė; Vitkauskaitė, Elena; Vaičiukynaitė, Eglė

  1. By: Moder, Isabella
    Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the interest rate pass-through of euro area monetary policy to retail rates outside the euro area, contributing to the literature on the consequences of unofficial financial euroisation and on the transmission channels of monetary policy spillovers. The results suggest that in the long run, more than one third of all euro retail rates in euroised countries of central, eastern and south-eastern Europe (CESEE) are linked to the euro area shadow rate. Compared to euro area monetary policy, the share of cointegration of the domestic monetary policy rate is lower, suggesting that domestic central banks in euroised countries with independent monetary policy can only partially control the `euro part´ of the interest rate channel. Furthermore, euro area monetary policy shocks are fast and persistently transmitted into euro retail rates outside the euro area, which constitutes an additional channel of international shock transmission. JEL Classification: C22, C32, E43, E52, F42
    Keywords: EU integration, international monetary policy spillovers, monetary policy transmission, unofficial financial euroisation
    Date: 2021–10
  2. By: Fritz Breuss
    Abstract: Many studies with different methods (CGE models, DSGE models, structural gravity equations) have recently evaluated EU's Single Market. The problem with all these studies is that they use complex models with data sets which are not replicable. The aim of this paper is to develop a simple EU model which uses readily accessible data, and which is replicable in EViews. First the 10 equations macro model is used to evaluate Austria's EU membership since 1995. Then the same prototype model is applied to make a comparison of the integration effects of a selected number of EU Member States. Our simple EU model covers the essential economic effects of EU integration of EU's Single Market, the introduction of the Euro, and the following EU enlargements: increase in intra-EU trade, price reduction because of more competition, the impact of the net budget position vis à vis the EU budget, and lastly that on growth.
    Keywords: European Integration, Model Simulations, Country Studies
    Date: 2021–10–14
  3. By: Mikhail Freer; Khushboo Surana
    Abstract: We present a framework to study household consumption under the assumption of marital stability in the presence of divorce legislation. Using this model, we derive nonparametric conditions that allow us to identify the intrahousehold consumption allocation. We study two integral dimensions of divorce legislation. First, we consider a regime governing divorce itself. The legislation either allows partners to divorce unilaterally at will or requires the mutual consent of both partners to dissolve the marriage. Second, for couples with children, we consider the implications of sole and joint custody arrangements for marital stability. Under sole custody, children reside with the custodian parent, whereas under joint custody, both parents equally share the responsibilities of children after the divorce. We illustrate the importance of these legislative aspects of divorce and marriage in the empirical identification of intrahousehold allocations through an application to household data from Russia. %Russia is an attractive setting for this study: first, it has one of the highest divorce rates in the world, and, second, Russian family laws are straightforward and practiced quite closely. Our results suggest that a model incorporating divorce legislation better fits the data than a benchmark model without divorce legislation, especially for couples with children. Next, we show that ignoring the law-based implications results in notably different estimates of intrahousehold resource shares. For example, we find that a model without divorce legislation significantly underestimates the mother's share of private consumption. Bias in the estimates of intrahousehold allocations can lead to misleading policy implications. We illustrate this by conducting a poverty analysis at the level of individual household members.
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Salland, Jan (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg)
    Abstract: This paper applies the German Socio-Economic Panel to analyse the effect of within household income comparison on individual life satisfaction. Our estimates indicate, a primary breadwinner wife decreases spousal individual happiness by roughly nine per cent. To state the economic significance, a €70,000 increase in external, peer reference income corresponds to a similar individual happiness decrease. The estimates suggest envy effects among couples and provide mixed evidence for gender roles to influence subjective well-being. Based on subsample estimations, our results are driven by younger birth year quartiles, lower education and total income households, East German couples and households with greater fulltime employment share. The paper adds to within household interdependence of subjective well-being and indicates negative consequences of couple income comparison for individual happiness. Wives (barely) outearning their husbands seem to signal ’competition’.
    Keywords: Life Satisfaction; Well-being; Happiness; Income Comparison; Gender Identity
    JEL: D10 I31 J16
    Date: 2021–10–05
  5. By: Hervás-oliver, José-luis; Parrilli, Mario Davide; Rodríguez-pose, Andrés; Sempere-ripoll, Francisca
    Abstract: European Union (EU) innovation policies have for long remained mostly research driven. The fundamental goal has been to achieve a rate of R&D investment of 3% of GDP. Small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) innovation, however, relies on a variety of internal sources —both R&D and non-R&D based— and external drivers, such as collaboration with other firms and research centres, and is profoundly influence by location and context. Given this multiplicity of innovation activities, this study argues that innovation policies fundamentally based on a place-blind increase of R&D investment may not deliver the best outcomes in regions where the capacity of SMEs is to benefit from R&D is limited. We posit that collaboration and regional specificities can play a greater role in determining SME innovation, beyond just R&D activities. Using data from the Regional Innovation Scoreboard (RIS), covering 220 regions across 22 European countries, we find that regions in Europe differ significantly in terms of SME innovation depending on their location. SMEs in more innovative regions benefit to a far greater extent from a combination of internal R&D, external collaboration of all sorts, and non-R&D inputs. SMEs in less innovative regions rely fundamentally on external sources and, particularly, on collaboration with other firms. Greater investment in public R&D does not always lead to improvements in regional SME innovation, regardless of context. Collaboration is a central innovation activity that can complement R&D, showing an even stronger effect on SME innovation than R&D. Hence, a more collaboration-based and place-sensitive policy is required to maximise SME innovation across the variety of European regional contexts.
    Keywords: regional innovation; SMEs; R&D; place-based; collaboration; EU regions
    JEL: O31 O32 L11
    Date: 2021–11–01
  6. By: Jesper Johnsøn; Lech Marcinkowski; Dawid Sześciło
    Abstract: Good governance of public agencies requires the application of a set of regulatory and managerial tools to find the right balance between autonomy of agencies and adequate oversight from portfolio ministries and other actors. This paper provides insights from EU and OECD good practices, with a detailed analysis of EU acquis requirements for national regulatory agencies. New empirical evidence shows that public administrations in the Western Balkans and European Neighbourhood area lack clear policies and regulations for agency governance and misinterpret the EU acquis. This leads to a proliferation of agencies, duplication of functions and waste of public resources, a lack of accountability to portfolio ministries and generally a governance vacuum. Implementation of government policy is blocked and democratic accountability generally undermined. Finally, recommendations for better organisation of public administration are provided, based on the empirical analysis and lessons learned from SIGMA's engagement in such reforms.
    Keywords: accountability, agency governance, Armenia, autonomy, Georgia, Moldova, public administration reform, regulators, Ukraine, Western Balkans
    Date: 2021–10–22
  7. By: Cylus, Jonathan; Al Tayara, Lynn
    Abstract: Research often suggests that population ageing will be detrimental for the economy due to increased labour market exits and lost productivity, however the role of population health and disability at older ages is not well established. We estimate the relationship between the size of the older working age population and economic growth across 180 countries from 1990 to 2017 to explore whether a healthy older working age population, as measured by age-specific Years Lived with Disability (YLDs), can moderate the relationship between an ageing labour force and real per capita GDP growth. Using country and year fixed effects models, we find that although an increase in the 55–69 year old share of the total population is associated with a reduction in real per capita GDP growth, the decline in economic growth is moderated if the population at that age is in good health. To demonstrate the magnitude of effects, we present model predicted real per capita GDP growth for a selection of countries from 2020 through 2100 comparing the 2017 country-specific baseline YLD rate to a simulated 5% improvement in YLDs. Our findings demonstrate that economic slowdowns attributable to population ageing are avoidable through policy interventions supporting healthy and active ageing.
    Keywords: economy; health; population ageing
    JEL: N0 R14 J01
    Date: 2021–10–01
  8. By: Česnuitytė, Vida; Dromantienė, Leta; Bernotas, Dainius; Banytė, Jūratė; Vitkauskaitė, Elena; Vaičiukynaitė, Eglė
    Abstract: The sharing economy is a new and underdeveloped phenomenon in Lithuania, starting from the definition of the concept in a state’s legal framework and scarce statistics. The aim of the paper is to describe the trends of the digitally supported sharing economy in Lithuania. Available national and international information and data were analysed. It was shown that the most popular services in Lithuania there is the transport sector, in the second place there is the accommodation sector, in the third—food-related services. The reasons why Lithuanians offer services via collaborative platforms mostly concern additional sources of income and flexible working hours. Over two-thirds of the habitants express their positive attitudes towards sharing economy and collaborative platforms, and over ninety per cent would recommend other services offered via collaborative platforms. Though 97% of the Lithuanians have never offered the services via sharing economy and collaborative platforms, and it is mostly because of no item or interest, and two-fifths do not know at all those collaborative platforms are. The development of the sharing economy in Lithuania as far is gaining speed, and in the future, the principles of these phenomena are going to be used in an even broader scope of the sectors.
    Keywords: Accommodation Sharing; B2C Sharing; Car-Sharing; Collaborative Economy; Lithuania; P2P Sharing Platform; Sharing Economy; Sharing of Things
    JEL: L86 L91
    Date: 2021

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