nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2017‒06‒25
thirty papers chosen by
J. David Brown
United States Census Bureau

  1. Comparison of Chinese reform experience with other transition economies (in the example of Russia) By Abasov, Muzaffar
  2. Corporate control market: stages, specific features, regulation By Radygin Alexandr; Apevalova Elena; Polezhaeva Natalia
  3. Russia’s banking sector in 2016 By Khromov Mikhail
  4. Intergovernmental fiscal relations and sub-national finance By Mamedov Arseny; Arlashkin Igor; Barbashova Natalia
  5. Education System in Russia in 2016 By Klyachko Tatiana; Tokareva Galina
  6. Local determinants of the spatial distribution of exporters in Poland: the role of FDI By Jaroslaw Michal Nazarczuk; Stanislaw Uminski; Tomasz Brodzicki
  7. Housing market in Russia in 2016 By Zadonsky Georgy
  8. Russia’s Monetary Policy in 2016 By Bozhechkova Alexandra; Trunin Pavel; Knobel Alexander; Kiyutsevskaya Anna
  9. Description of main off-budget funds By Grishina Elena; Avksentiev Nikolay
  10. Russia’s Budgetary System By Mamedov Arseny; Fomina Elena; Belev Sergey; Shatalova Svetlana
  11. Household sector: income, consumer and labor markets By Avraamova Elena; Loginov Dmitry; Grishina Elena; Florinskaya Yulia; Mkrtchian Nikita; Lyashok Viktor; Burdyak Alexandra; Maleva Tatiana; Poliakova Aleksandra
  12. Financial Markets and Financial Institutions in Russia in 2016 By Abramov Alexander
  13. The characteristic features of the federal budget By Mamedov Arseny; Fomina Elena; Tishchenko Tatiana; Khuzina Alfia
  14. Fixed investment in Russia in 2016 By Izryadnova Olga
  15. Russian oil and gas sector in 2016 By Bobylev Yuri
  16. RIO Country Report 2016: Czech Republic By Martin Srholec; Cristiana Benedetti Fasil
  17. Decomposition of Russia’s GDP growth rates in 2016–2019 By Drobyshevsky Sergey; Kazakova Maria
  18. Municipal and sub-federal debt market By Shadrin Artem
  19. Export as a form of SME-internationalisation after the crisis – experiences of three European regions By Andrea Éltető
  20. Growth factors in the agriculture of Russia By Uzun Vasily; Shagaida Natalia
  21. Russian industrial enterprises in 2016 (on business surveys’ findings) By Tsukhlo Sergey
  22. The public sector and privatization policy By Radygin Alexandr; Malginov Georgiy
  23. The North Caucasus: the main trends of 2016 By Kazenin Konstantin
  24. The lessons of stabilization and prospects of growth: Russia’s economic policy in 2016 By Mau Vladimir
  25. Currency co-movements in Asia-Pacific : The regional role of the Renminbi By Marconi, Daniela
  26. Russia’s application of WTO dispute settlement mechanisms By Knobel Alexander; Baeva Marina
  27. Effects of standards on tea exports from developing countries : comparison of China and Sri Lanka By Lei, Lei
  28. Defense economy and military reform in Russia in 2016 By Zatsepin Vasily; Tsymbal Vitaly
  29. The internationalisation of firms and management practices : a survey of firms in Viet Nam By Kamata, Isao; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
  30. Science-industry cooperation in Russia: current status, problems, effects of government support By Kuzyk Mikhail; Zudin N.; Simachev Yuri

  1. By: Abasov, Muzaffar
    Abstract: China and Russia were two most important communist countries of 20th century which decided to have transition towards a more liberal market economy. China followed a gradual reform strategy while Russia followed a rapid one. This paper analyses the reasons why China’s transition experience was much more successful when compared to Russia. Paper concludes that initial conditions of the economies, the strategies chosen and some external factors such as political situation played important role in the outcome of the reforms.
    Keywords: transition economies, reform strategies, Chinese economy, Russian economy
    JEL: P2 P21 P27
    Date: 2017–05–27
  2. By: Radygin Alexandr (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Apevalova Elena (RANEPA); Polezhaeva Natalia (RANEPA)
    Abstract: Russia’s market for mergers and acquisitions came into being in the early 1990s when mass privatization of state-owned property gained momentum. More specifically, it was not until after the Russian financial crisis of 1998 that mergers and friendly takeovers took place in Russia. Up until then there were ‘acquisitions through privatization’ that can be regarded as a primary manifestation of the initial stage of building a market for corporate control (from 1992 till the onset of the financial crisis of 1998). Reorganization proceeded privatization in 1/3 of cases, was coupled with privatization in 1/3 of cases and followed privatization in 1/3 of cases. Also, the practice of consolidating Russian assets through both M&A and outsider shareholding was adopted in the mid-1990s. In 1998, the equity of about 40% of surveyed enterprises was partially held by outside corporate shareholders, and more than 13% of those enterprises were integrated with suppliers or consumers.
    Keywords: Russian economy, bankruptcy, public enterprises
    JEL: G33 G38 P2 P31
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Khromov Mikhail (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, Russian banks’ total asset holdings contracted by 3.5% in nominal terms – from Rb 83.0 trillion as of January 1, 2016 to Rb 80.0 trillion as of January 1, 2017. In 2015, Russian banks’ total asset holdings increased 6.9%. The decline in the nominal value of banks’ asset holdings in 2016 was recorded for the first time since asset-holding data began to be published in 1998. An appreciating ruble had a substantial adverse effect on the asset-holding dynamics. In 2016, the ruble gained 16.8% and 19.9% against the US dollar and the euro respectively, and therefore the ruble equivalent of assets held in foreign currency dropped considerably during the year. Banks’ asset holdings, as adjusted for the revaluation of assets held in foreign currency, increased slightly by 2.1% in 2016 after a 1.5% fall in 2015. Thus, the value of banking sector’s asset holdings was steady over the past two years.
    Keywords: Russian economy, banking sector, profit, capital, corporate loans, retail deposits
    JEL: E41 E51 G28 G21 G24
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Mamedov Arseny (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Arlashkin Igor (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Barbashova Natalia (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The revenue and expenditure structure of Russia’s consolidated budget reflects main trends in the relationship between various public administration levels. Fig. 20 presents data reflecting the percentage of tax revenues and expenditure of subjects of the Russian Federation in total tax revenues and expenditure of Russia’s budget system (the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation and of public off-budget funds).
    Keywords: Russian economy, intergovernmental relations
    JEL: H77
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Klyachko Tatiana (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Tokareva Galina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, no events happened that would significantly influence the development of the Russian education system. The agenda that had emerged in 2012–2015 was being implemented. The regular monitoring of the effectiveness of higher education institutions was conducted, the average salary of teachers was raised, the principle of normative per capita financing of vocational education continued to be implemented, mergers of higher education institutions were carried out, the core higher education institutions were chosen.
    Keywords: Russian economy, higher education, vocational education, job skills
    JEL: I21 I23 I25
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Jaroslaw Michal Nazarczuk (University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn); Stanislaw Uminski (Institute for Development; Faculty of Economics, University of Gdansk); Tomasz Brodzicki (University of Gdansk, Faculty of Economics; Institute for Development, Sopot)
    Abstract: In the light of the hereto insufficient empirical evidence on the determinants of location of exporters and given the access to a unique GIS-based database for counties in Poland (LAU 1) on the distances to diverse points of interest (POIs) and infrastructure endowment, and data on regional heterogeneity, we investigate the deep determinants of exporters’ location in Poland. Our analysis is mostly driven by the concepts of NEG theory and the firms’ heterogeneity concept. With the use of econometric modelling, in the first step, we identify the determinants of regional location of exporting firms. In the second step, we try to identify the differences in the locational decisions of firms distinguished by ownership form, namely domestic and foreign-owned exporters. Our findings indicate the more predictable behaviour of foreign-owned exporters, for which the quality of transport endowment and inputs plays a more significant role in the decision in comparison to indigenous exporters, affected to a larger extent by deep-rooted factors and path-dependency. The locational preferences of FOEs are more influenced by the proximity to the airport and the motorways as well as subject to agglomeration externalities. The results point furthermore to the significance of accessibility to markets as evidenced by the role of infrastructure endowment and the role of the greater regional human capital endowment.
    Keywords: locational determinants, the spatial distribution of exporters, regional trade, foreign investors, Poland
    JEL: R12 F14 R15
    Date: 2017–06
  7. By: Zadonsky Georgy (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: According to the data released by the Bank of Russia, as of July 1, 2016, the number of credit institutions issuing residential loans (RL) and housing mortgage loans (HNL) fell to 680 and constituted 85.3% of their number as of July 1, 2015 (Table 16). Herewith, the number of credit institutions issuing RL came to 522 and those extending HML – 499, and those attracting refinancing on the HML secondary market – 34. Moreover, the number of credit institutions extending housing mortgage loans secured by the right of foreclosure on agreements of participation in shared construction came to 212 as of July 1, 2016.
    Keywords: Russian economy, mortgage, land market
    JEL: G21 K11 L74 L85
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Bozhechkova Alexandra (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Trunin Pavel (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Knobel Alexander (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Kiyutsevskaya Anna (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, the Bank of Russia implemented a conservative monetary policy aimed at mitigating inflation. Commercial banks decreased their demand for central bank refinancing as the Reserve Fund was spent, in which case the central bank had to employ a set of instruments to prevent an increase in the money supply. It happened twice over the course of the year – on June 14 and September 19 – that Russia’s central bank cut 0.5 percentage points off the key rate, to 10% p.a. With a declining inflation rate and inflation expectations available during the year, a rather moderate decline in the key rate suggested growth of the real interest rate in the money market. Maintaining a positive real rate in the money market helps prevent prices from hiking upwards as the savings appeal strengthened, although there is risk of economic slowdown.
    Keywords: Russian economy, monetary policy, money market, exchange rate, inflation, balance of payments
    JEL: E31 E43 E44 E51 E52 E58
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Grishina Elena (RANEPA); Avksentiev Nikolay (Financial Research Institute)
    Abstract: In the following, we analyze the budget execution of the two main (in terms of size and value for the budget system) public off-budget funds: The Pension Fund of Russia (hereinafter – PFR) and The Federal Compulsory Medical Insurance Fund
    Keywords: Russian economy, pension fund, medical insurance fund
    JEL: D6
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Mamedov Arseny (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Fomina Elena (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Belev Sergey (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Shatalova Svetlana (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, fiscal revenues of the enlarged government surpassed 2015 volumes both in absolute terms (by RUB 1,253bn) and in relative terms by 0.5 percentage point of GDP (see Table 6). Expenditures of the enlarged government went up by 0.8 percentage point of GDP and by RUB 1,581bn in absolute terms. The fiscal deficit of the enlarged government in 2016 was up compared to the level of the previous year (3.7% of GDP in 2016 against 3.4% of GDP in 2015). It should be noted that the fiscal deficit reported in 2015–2016 surpassed manifold its 2013-2014 volumes both in absolute and in relative terms.
    Keywords: Russian economy, budgetary system, budget revenues, budget parameters, budget deficit
    JEL: H61 H62
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Avraamova Elena (RANEPA); Loginov Dmitry (RANEPA); Grishina Elena (RANEPA); Florinskaya Yulia (RANEPA); Mkrtchian Nikita (RANEPA); Lyashok Viktor (RANEPA); Burdyak Alexandra (RANEPA); Maleva Tatiana (RANEPA); Poliakova Aleksandra (RANEPA)
    Abstract: Household real disposable income and real pensions decelerated by 6.1% and 2.5% in December 2016 in comparison with the same period of 2015 (Fig. 1). In contrast, real wage went up by 2.4% in December 2016 compared to the same period of the previous year.
    Keywords: Russian economy, households, labor market, social sentiment, internal migration, long-term migration, external labor migration
    JEL: D14 J01 J61 J62 F22 J11
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Abramov Alexander (RANEPA)
    Abstract: In 2016, Russia's stock market, in terms of its rates of return, set a world record among all the other stock markets. Over that year, the RTS Index gained 52.3%, and the MICEX Index –26.8% (Fig. 1). The faster growth rate of the RTS Index, which reflects the price of shares in US dollar terms, can be explained by the ruble's strengthening in 2016. The other forces behind the growth of the Russian stock indexes were the rising oil prices, the inflow of non-residents' money in response to the strengthening ruble and the stably high key interest rate, and investor expectations of recovery economic growth.
    Keywords: Russian economy, stock market, share market, bond market, derivatives market
    JEL: G01 G12 G18 G21 G24 G28 G32 G33
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Mamedov Arseny (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Fomina Elena (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Tishchenko Tatiana (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Khuzina Alfia (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, certain amendments were made to RF legislation, whereby the specific features of the budgeting process at the federal level were determined. In particular, the alterations introduced by Federal Law No 71-FZ dated May 30, 2016 'On Suspending Paragraph Four of Item 2 of Article 179 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation' are designed to optimize the procedures for adjusting government (municipal) programs. With due regard for the complicated economic situation, the provision of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter to be referred to as RF BC) whereby all government (municipal) programs were to be brought in conformity with the budget law (or budget decision) by April 1, 2016 was suspended for one more year (until January 1, 2017).
    Keywords: Russian economy, budget system, tax revenues, budget parameters
    JEL: H61 H62
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Izryadnova Olga (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The period of 2014–2016 saw mixed investment dynamics driven by the factors and conditions for (1) recovery from the crisis of 2009–2012 and (2) for Russian economy’s adaptation amid restricted access to global capital markets. Russia’s investment crisis hit a peak in H1 2009, and fixed investment recovered bouncing back to pre-crisis levels by 2011 year end. Fixed investment accounted for 19.7% of GDP, one percentage point below the average of 2007–2008, despite a faster rate than GDP growth in the period of 2010–2011. In 2012, the year-on-year fixed investment growth of 6.8% was bolstered by major infrastructure and social investment projects in progress. However, with the savings available at that time, the fixed investment share in 2012 was still smaller than what it was prior to the crisis. Although fixed investment growth rates was close to zero in 2013, the year-on-year growth of 0.8% influenced the investment demand dynamics in the years that followed.
    Keywords: Russian economy, fixed investment
    JEL: E20 E21 E22 E60
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Bobylev Yuri (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The oil and gas sector is among principal sectors of the Russian economy and is the driving force in shaping the state budget revenues and the trade balance. In 2016, Russia’s crude oil production hit an all-time peak since 1990, and crude oil exports were close to an all-time high. Under the so-called tax maneuver in force in the oil industry, refining depth went up noticeably, production and export of fuel oil moved down and export of crude oil, a highly lucrative source of the budget revenues, increased.
    Keywords: Russian economy, oil and gas sector, oil production, oil prices, oil and gas export
    JEL: L71 L72
    Date: 2017
  16. By: Martin Srholec (Centre of Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University (Lund, Sweden) and CERGE-EI, Economics Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic)); Cristiana Benedetti Fasil (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The 2016 series of the RIO Country Report analyses and assesses the development and performance of the national research and innovation system of the EU-28 Member States and related policies with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the EU policy implementation as well as facilitating policy learning in the Member States.
    Keywords: research and innovation, Czech Republic, innovation system
    Date: 2017–05
  17. By: Drobyshevsky Sergey (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Kazakova Maria (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In his Annual Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly on 30 November 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin underscored Russia’s goal to catch up with the world average growth rates by 2019–2020. As a reminder, the IMF projects 3.7% for the average annual growth rate of the global economy in the coming three years. Earlier in November, Russia’s Ministry of Economic Development (MED) updated its forecast for Russia’s socio-economic development for 2017–2019[1] whereby a 0.6% decline is projected for Russia’s GDP in 2016, while its baseline scenarios (see below) predict that economic growth rates will be barely higher than 2% by 2020 amid low crude oil prices and a lack of structural reforms.
    Keywords: Russian economy, GDP
    JEL: F10 F14 F15 F40
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Shadrin Artem (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: According to the 2016 year-end data, the regional consolidated budget and local government off-budget funds’ budget ran a deficit of Rb 303.5m and thereby reached an almost deficit-free level. By comparison, the regional consolidated budget and local government off-budget funds’ budget amounted to Rb 178.7bn (0.22% of GDP) in 2015.
    Keywords: Russian economy, regional and municipal finances, loan market
    JEL: H71 H74
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Andrea Éltető (Institute of World Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: European small and medium-sized enterprises were severely hit by the international crisis of 2008 and export activity – as a form of internationalisation - was an important component of the recovery. This paper concentrates on the post-crisis period of the Iberian, Baltic and Visegrád countries. As for born global firms have spread and these countries are strongly involved in global production networks, the theory of international new ventures and the network approach can especially be appropriate for them. The significance of SMEs in employment, value added and export and their pace of recovery is different in the three regions. Apart from the structural rearrangements in exporting enterprises, the geographical direction of exports has also changed temporarily towards non-EU markets after the crisis. Based on existing enterprise surveys the second part of the article focuses on the export enhancing and hindering factors in the post-crisis period. Overall, product features and manager attitude proved to be the most important in export competitiveness. Lack of finance and contacts, strong foreign competition and high market entry costs are the leading export barriers for SMEs.
    Keywords: SMEs, export, export barriers
    JEL: F10
    Date: 2017–05
  20. By: Uzun Vasily (RANEPA); Shagaida Natalia (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, record-high yields of grain, including wheat, maize, sunflower, soya and sugar-beet were received. A new record in poultry meat production was set. Despite economic recession, gross agricultural output has been growing in the past few years. Such results are attributed by many experts to the effect of the embargo on imports of food from some countries and import substitution measures. However, neither the embargo nor import substitution was a decisive factor behind growth in agriculture. The most important factors were the interest of the business in developing agriculture, depreciation of the ruble and favorable weather conditions of the past few years.
    Keywords: Russian economy, agricultural production
    JEL: Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Tsukhlo Sergey (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Business surveys of industrial enterprises have been conducted by the Gaidar Institute using a European harmonized method in monthly cycles since September 1992, covering the entire territory of the Russian Federation. The panel size is around 1,000 enterprises employing over 13% of industrial employees. The panel is shifted towards large enterprises for each of the segregated sub-industries. The ratio of returned questionnaires is in the range of 70-75%. Business survey questionnaire contains a limited number of questions (not more than 15–20). The questions are of a qualitative and not quantitative nature. Simple questions structure allows the respondents to fill out the questionnaire quickly and without using any documents. It is paramount that respondent at each enterprise is a manager of the highest level who has a full understanding of state of business and is directly linked to the business management.
    Keywords: Russian economy, industry
    JEL: C53 E37 L21 L52
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Radygin Alexandr (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Malginov Georgiy (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, statistical data began to be published in the framework of the newly introduced System of Public Property Management Efficiency Estimates. It was approved by Decree of the RF Government of 29 January 2015, No 72 and introduced by way of replacing the public sector monitoring data, collected and released by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) since the late 1990s in accordance with the provisions stipulated in Decree of the RF Government of January 4, 1999, No 1 (as amended as of December 30, 2002). Among other things, the System of Public Property Management Efficiency Estimates contains data on the number of federal state unitary enterprises (FSUEs) and joint-stock companies (JSCs) with RF stakes in their capital, which previously were published as part of government privatization programs (from 2011 – for three-year period, and prior to 2011- for one-year period.
    Keywords: Russian economy, public sector, privatization
    JEL: K11 H82 L32 L33
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Kazenin Konstantin (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This section analyzes the main new trends that became visible in the North Caucasus during the past year. Bearing in mind the specific features of this region of the Russian Federation, it is important that our analyst should not be confined to examining only the changes that occurred in the economic realm, but also pay attention to those that took place in the sphere of regional politics and regional security.
    Keywords: Russian economy, North Caucasus
    JEL: H11 H70 H77
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Mau Vladimir (RANEPA)
    Abstract: The world is searching for a new socioeconomic development paradigm, which is sometimes referred to as the “new reality.” Judging by the previous structural crises (in the 1930s and 1970s), this search takes about a decade characterized by volatile economic trends, political crises, and social instability. Past experience should by no means be applied bluntly to the future, and the actual duration of the “turbulent decade” can only be determined by future economic historians. However, it is now evident that the key issue on the political and intellectual agenda is a new economic growth model, its potential rates and sources.
    Keywords: Russian economy, economic growth, economic crisis
    JEL: P16 P26 P48
    Date: 2017
  25. By: Marconi, Daniela
    Abstract: The internationalization of China’s currency, the renminbi (RMB) bolsters the growing economic and political influence of China in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper assesses the evolution of RMB exchange rate co-movements against the US dollar (USD) within the region. While the RMB’s influence is growing, it is also found to be asymmetric and varying over time depending on the global movement of the USD. The trend is strong when the USD depreciates, but fades when the USD appreciates.
    JEL: F31 F33
    Date: 2017–06–13
  26. By: Knobel Alexander (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Baeva Marina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: On August 22, 2012, the Russian Federation joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as dispute settlement mechanisms designed to resolve WTO trade disputes and governed by the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU). Hence Russia has since August 2012 been entitled to apply this instrument to uphold its commercial interests.
    Keywords: Russian economy, foreign trade, WTO, trade disputes
    JEL: F10 F13 F19
    Date: 2017
  27. By: Lei, Lei
    Abstract: Food safety standards have become stricter and are currently major barriers in the international agri-food trade. These standards negatively affect developing countries exports to markets in developed countries. We use tea exports from two major tea exporting developing countries, China and Sri Lanka, as an example to discuss the effects of standards on their tea supply chains. China and Sri Lanka share some similar characteristics in tea production and exports. First, we conduct a general comparison between the two countries’ tea exports based on port rejection data from UNIDO, and then we provide a detailed supply chain analysis. Finally, we summarize our work and discuss the policy implications.
    Keywords: International trade,Standards,Tea,Exports,Supply Chain
    JEL: O10 Q13 Q17
    Date: 2017–04
  28. By: Zatsepin Vasily (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Tsymbal Vitaly (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, the main provisions of the military reform started in 2008 and approved by the Executive Order of President Vladimir Putin[1] of May 2012 were successfully realized as a whole.
    Keywords: Russian economy, military-industrial complex, military reform, defense order, military procurement, defense control
    JEL: D74 F52 H56 F51
    Date: 2017
  29. By: Kamata, Isao; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
    Abstract: This study examines the role of management practices in the internationalisation of domestic firms through directly exporting and/or supplying to local affiliates of multinationals. An original survey of manufacturing firms in Viet Nam was conducted, investigating their management practices such as human resource management and internationalisation status. The survey results shed light on similarities and dissimilarities among firms in several dimensions of management practices. We found that internationalised firms tended to be more enthusiastic about the formal training of production workers, the modernisation of production and operation, and product and process innovation. Differences in skills and experience requirements for newly employed managers were less recognisable, but internationalised firms tended to have managers who studied overseas. Furthermore, the use of public support to employee training, teamwork in production, and unionisation of employees did not show a significant difference between internationalised and non-internationalised firms.
    Keywords: Industrial management,Business enterprises,Globalization,Management Practices,Firm Heterogeneity,Global Value Chains
    JEL: F23 F61 M11 M50
    Date: 2017–03
  30. By: Kuzyk Mikhail (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Zudin N. (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Simachev Yuri (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In the modern world, close interaction and productive cooperation between business companies, scientific research centers and universities plays a very important role in ensuring sustainable economic development. According to the evolutionary theory, innovation is produced by the interaction of various components of a national innovative system responsible for the distribution and practical application of new knowledge that can be put to economic use.
    Keywords: Russian economy, R&D, science, technology
    JEL: O31 O32 O3 I28 I2
    Date: 2017

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