nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2016‒06‒25
thirty-one papers chosen by
J. David Brown
United States Census Bureau

  1. Industrial Segregation and Wage Gaps between Migrants and Local Urban Residents in China:2002-2013 By Ma, Xinxin; Li, Shi
  2. Development of Proposals on the Content of Russia's Participation in the APEC Forum In the 2015-2020 Biennium. and Mechanisms for Practical Implementation of the Decisions of the APEC Leaders in 2012-2014 By Kuznetsova, A.E.; Flegontova, Tatiana; Ptashkina, M.G.; Stapran, Natalia
  3. Empirical Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Rice Harvest Losses Based on Sampling Survey Data of 10 Provinces in China By Wu, Linhai; Hu, Qipeng; Zhu, Dian; Wang, Jianhua
  4. Child Labor in China By Tang, Can; Zhao, Liqiu; Zhao, Zhong
  5. Divergence of Human Capital in Cities in the People’s Republic of China: Exploring Complementarities and Spatial Agglomeration of the Workforce with Various Skills By Liang, Wenquan; Lu, Ming
  6. What Explains Herd Behavior in the Chinese Stock Market? By Chong, Terence Tai-Leung; Liu, Xiaojin; Zhu, Chenqi
  7. Modelling the potential impacts of economic reform in a partnership between Australia and China By Paul Gretton
  8. Investigating the Relationship between Land and Labor Endowments and Agricultural Mechanization among Chinese Farmers By Yating, Zeng; Yanhong, Jin; Zhong, Tang
  9. Politico-Economic Regimes And Attitudes: Female Workers Under State-Socialism By Pamela Campa; Michel Serafinelli
  10. Improving the System of Distribution of Equalization Transfers in the Russian Federation By Deryugin, A.N.; Arlashkin. Igor Yurievich; Proka, K.A.
  11. International Experience of Creation of Special Economic Zones By Volovik, Nadezhda
  12. Issues of Federal Subsidies to Regions in Russia By Deryugin, A.N.; Arlashkin. Igor Yurievich; Proka, K.A.
  13. Estimating agglomeration in the EU and the Western Balkan regions By Roman Römisch
  14. Development of the Institutional Framework for Regulation and Supervision of Credit Cooperation of the Russian Market to Increase Its Effectiveness By Mamuta, Mikhail; Sorokina, O.S.
  15. Monthly Report No. 12/2015 By Amat Adarov; Peter Havlik; Gabor Hunya; Leon Podkaminer; Roman Römisch
  16. Optimization of government trade behavior and its implication for small developing economy (the case of Ukraine) By Sokolovska, Olena; Sokolovskyi, Dmytro
  17. Research of the Effect of Growth of Openness of the Russian Economy on Income Inequality in Russia By Idrisov, Georgiy; Taganov, B.V.
  18. Is corruption efficiency-enhancing? A case study of nine Central and Eastern European countries By Elisa Gamberoni; Christine Gartner; Claire Giordano; Paloma Lopez-Garcia
  19. Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Northwestern China By Bai, Yu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Rozelle, Scott
  20. Understanding the Recent Trend of Income Inequality in China By Juzhong Zhuang; Shi Li
  21. Medical expenses matter most for the poor: evidence from Vietnam By Quan-Hoang Vuong; Ha Nguyen
  22. Do foreign banks take more risk? Evidence from emerging economies By Jeon, Bang; Wu, Ji; Chen, Minghua; Wang, Rui
  23. Improving the Mechanism of Taxation of Natural Persons Property By Korytin, A.V.; Shatalova, Svetlana Sergeevna
  25. Decreased tracking, increased earning: Evidence from the comprehensive Polish educational reform of 1999 By Luca Flóra Drucker; Daniel Horn
  26. Conditions and Factors of Overcoming of Depopulation in Russia By Aganbegyan, Abel; Kleeva, Lyudmila; Krotova, Nadezhda; Pechurina, A.A.
  27. Towards a political economy framework for wind power : Does China break the mould? By Michael Davidson; Fredrich Kahrl; Valerie Karplus
  28. Improving the Russian Tax Legislation on the Taxation of Income from Asset Management By Gromov, Vladimir; Malinina, Tatiana
  29. Institutional Competition Regulators in the Urban Environment of the North Caucasus By Kazenin, Konstantin Igorevich
  30. Empirical Analysis of the Properties of Methods of Seasonal Adjustment of Russian Macroeconomic Indicators By Morgunova, O.V.; Turuntseva, Marina
  31. Analysis on Demand and Supply-side Responses during the Expansion of Health Insurance Coverage in Vietnam: Challenges and Policy Implications toward Universal Health Coverage By Midori Matsushima; Hiroyuki Yamada; Yasuharu Shimamura

  1. By: Ma, Xinxin; Li, Shi
    Abstract: This paper explores industrial segregation and its impact on the wage gaps between rural-to-urban migrants and local urban residents in China. Using the Chinese Household Income Project (CHIP) 2002 and 2013 surveys, we analyzed the probabilities of entry to various industries for both migrant and local urban resident groups; using the model of Brown et al. (1980), we then undertook a decomposition analysis of the wage gaps. Several major conclusions emerge. First, although inter-industry differentials and intra-industry differentials both affect the wage gap between migrants and local urban residents, the effect of intra-industrial differentials is greater in both 2002 and 2013. Second, in considering the effect of intra-industry differentials, while the influence of explained differentials is greater than that of unexplained differentials in both 2002 and 2013, the influence of the unexplained component of the intra-industrial differentials rises steeply from 19.4% (2002) to 68.0% (2013). The results show that when other factors are held constant, the problem of discrimination against migrants in a given industry is becoming more serious. In addition, the influence of the explained component of the intra-industry differentials rises from 61.2% (2002) to 77.7% (2013).
    Keywords: industrial segregation, wage gaps, migrants, local urban residents, urban China
    JEL: J16 J24 J42 J71
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Kuznetsova, A.E. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Flegontova, Tatiana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Ptashkina, M.G. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Stapran, Natalia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: With a view to prepare the Comprehensive action plan of Russia’s participation in APEC in 2016-2018, this paper presents proposals on the future Russian contibution to APEC agenda and ways to increase efficiency of current Russian initiatives. It also analizes projects and initiatives, developed by other APEC member economies and highlights the most promising areas of cooperation as well as formats to better promote Russian interests in Asia-Pacific. Finally, the paper contains a list of recommendations which include internal measures, possible projects and initiatives to integrate the key goals and priorities of Russia’s economy into APEC’s agenda.
    Keywords: Russia, APEC
    Date: 2016–04–25
  3. By: Wu, Linhai; Hu, Qipeng; Zhu, Dian; Wang, Jianhua
    Abstract: Grain security should be a priority for the Chinese government when managing state affairs. The total rice production needs to remain stable at more than 200 million tons. However, there have been serious rice harvest losses, especially the harvest stage. In this study, the meaning of rice harvest losses was defined based on previous research findings on the definition of grain harvest losses and the realities in China. The current rice harvest losses in different areas in China were analyzed based on sampling survey data from 957 farmers in 10 provinces in China. On this basis, the main factors influencing rice harvest losses and their marginal effects were analyzed using the ordered multinomial logistic model. The survey found that 56.22% of respondents believed that rice harvest losses were 4% or lower in China, though there were differences among the province. The proportion of family rice-farming income, size of production area, level of mechanization, timely harvest, and operational meticulousness had negative effects on rice harvest losses. On the other hand, farmers' experience of employment as migrant workers had a positive effect on rice harvest losses. In addition, bad weather and short handedness during harvest significantly increased rice harvest losses.
    Keywords: rice, harvest losses, ordered multinomial logistic model, marginal effect, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18,
    Date: 2016–04
  4. By: Tang, Can (Renmin University of China); Zhao, Liqiu (Renmin University of China); Zhao, Zhong (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: We present the first systematic study on child labor in China. Child labor is not a negligible social phenomenon in China; about 7.74% of children aged from 10 to 15 were working in 2010, and they worked for 6.75 hours per day on average, and spent 6.42 hours less per day on study than other children. About 90% of child laborers were still in school and combined economic activity with schooling. Our results show that child labor participation is positively associated with school dropout rate. A child living in a rural area is more likely to work. Compared with place of residence, the gender of a child are less important. The educational level of the household head and its interaction with the gender of the household head seem to be unimportant. However, household assets per capita and household involvement in non-agricultural activities are negatively related to the incidence of child labor. A child from a household with more adults is less likely to work. The prevalence of child labor in China exhibits significant regional variations. The child labor incidence is correlated with the development level of each region: the Western region has the highest percentage of child labor, followed by the Eastern and Central region.
    Keywords: child labor, school dropout, working hours, China
    JEL: J43 J81 O15
    Date: 2016–05
  5. By: Liang, Wenquan (Asian Development Bank Institute); Lu, Ming (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: In cities, complementarity between a low-skilled and a high-skilled workforce can promote each other to improve labor productivity. In this study, we used earlier census data and 1% population survey data to examine the distribution of the skilled workforce in cities in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) along with its changes, and drew the following three conclusions. First, a highly skilled workforce is the engine of urban development, increasing urban wages and population. Second, big cities can promote complementarity between skill sets so that there are greater numbers of high-skilled and low-skilled workers in those cities. This explains why both low-skilled and high-skilled workforces agglomerate in big cities. Last, complementarity between the low-skilled and high-skilled workforce is inhibited in the PRC’s cities because of the biased household registration system (HRS) toward the high-skilled workforce, resulting in limited supply of low-skilled labor. This policy is not conducive to enhance labor productivity in big cities and to carry out its leading role of economic growth.
    Keywords: People’s Republic of China; urbanization; urban development; urban system; city; skill complementarities; skill composition; labor productivity; workforce; economic growth; household registration system; human capital; household income; wages; industrialization; education
    JEL: J24 J61 R12
    Date: 2016–06–20
  6. By: Chong, Terence Tai-Leung; Liu, Xiaojin; Zhu, Chenqi
    Abstract: This paper examines the causes of herd behavior in the Chinese stock market. Using the non-linear model of Chang, Cheng and Khorana (2000), we find robust evidence of herding in both the up and down markets. We contribute to the existing literature by exploring the underlying reasons for herding in China. It is shown that analyst recommendation, short-term investor horizon, and risk are the principal causes of herding. However, we cannot find evidence that relates herding to firm size, nor can we detect significant differences in herding between state-owned enterprises (SOE) and non-SOEs.
    Keywords: A-share market; Herd behavior; Return dispersion; Systemic risk.
    JEL: G15
    Date: 2016–06–19
  7. By: Paul Gretton (EABER)
    Abstract: Effective economic reform agendas provide a means for promoting national economic growth, raising living standards and adapting to changes in trading conditions, new technologies and ways of working. Taking as a focus the Australia-China economic relationship, the GTAP model of the global economy is used to project the implications for Australia and China of preferential, unilateral and broader approaches to trade liberalisation, a broad agenda for reform across the services sector and financial market reform. The simulations show that reform strategies based on non-discriminatory trade liberalization and broadly-based concerted domestic reforms are likely to deliver substantive economic benefits and contribute to growth. Agendas that are restrictive, either through preferential deals between trading partners or through a narrow sectoral focus domestically are likely to constrain gains below levels that would otherwise be attainable.
    JEL: F1 F3 F4 O4 O5
    Date: 2016–06
  8. By: Yating, Zeng; Yanhong, Jin; Zhong, Tang
    Abstract: China maintains a steady yield increase in the past three decades, but farm production is undergoing a great change, especially in the recent decade, due to the change in both economic conditions and the environment along with a sharp decline of rural labor and farming population. Agricultural mechanization, especially agricultural mechanization services (AMS), gains its popularity in recent years. This study examines the adoption of agricultural mechanization, using either self-equipped machinery or AMS; and the factors contributing to the adoption of different types of agricultural mechanization. The empirical analysis uses primary survey data and employs a seemingly unrelated regression model. We find that the agricultural labor endowment improves the adoption of agricultural mechanization, but off-farm labor curbs the adoption. In terms of the land endowment, we find an inverse U-shaped non-linear relationship between the land endowment and the AMS adoption, and land fragmentation reduces the mechanization adoption.
    Keywords: Labor, Land Endowment, Mechanization of Agricultural Production, Agricultural Machinery Service (AMS), Farm Management, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics,
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Pamela Campa; Michel Serafinelli
    Abstract: This paper investigates the extent to which attitudes are affected by political regimes and government policies. We focus on female attitudes toward work and gender-role attitudes in the population at large, which have been shown to have significant effects on labor market outcomes. We exploit the imposition of state-socialist regimes across Central and Eastern Europe, and their efforts to promote womenÕs economic inclusion, for both instrumental and ideological reasons, presenting evidence from two different datasets. First, we take advantage of the German partition into East and West after 1945 and unique access to restricted information on place of residence to implement a spatial regression discontinuity design. We find more positive attitudes toward work in the sample of East German women. We also find evidence that increased female access to higher education and fulltime employment, arguably two of the very few positive aspects of living under state-socialism, may have served as channels for regime influence. Second, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares attitudes formed in Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) and Western European Countries (WECs), before and after the imposition of state socialism in CEECs. Gender-role attitudes formed in CEECs during the state socialist period appear to be significantly less traditional than those formed in WECs.
    Keywords: gender-role attitudes, state-socialism, Central and Eastern Europe
    Date: 2016–06
  10. By: Deryugin, A.N. (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Arlashkin. Igor Yurievich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Proka, K.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The review contains the analysis of Russia’s fiscal equalization system. The authors identified the system’s major shortcomings and provided arguments in favor of taking measures for its improvement in order to increase the system’s effectiveness, efficiency and objectiveness. Based on the analysis of the world best practice in the sphere of fiscal equalization as well as by using econometric modeling the authors developed recommendations on calculating budget expenditures index and improving policy in the field of determining the total amount of equalization transfers.
    Keywords: fiscal equalization, equalization transfers, distribution
    Date: 2016–03–23
  11. By: Volovik, Nadezhda (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: At the present time in Russia created 30 SEZ. In addition, in accordance with special federal laws functioning special economic zone in the Kaliningrad region in Magadan region, in the Crimea, the possibility of the use of the customs procedure of free customs zone in the areas of advanced development. Preparing a bill on the introduction of free warehouses, the creation of regional special economic zones. This diversity of organizational forms enables us to provide state support for a wide range of economic subjects. However, when assessing the effectiveness of the SEZ on the specific types of functioning of the Accounts Chamber in late 2013 it noted that conventionally can be regarded as effective only to the activities of SEZ and technology development. Tools specific government support measures within the individual areas are gaining popularity. At the same time, under the conditions of the Eurasian Economic Union regulation of SEZ creation, management, use of certain types of state support is governed by Union law.
    Keywords: Russia, Eurasian Economic Union, special economic zones
    Date: 2016–04–25
  12. By: Deryugin, A.N. (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Arlashkin. Igor Yurievich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Proka, K.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The current Russian system of federal intergovernmental subsidies to regions is ineffective. The paper presents the results of a survey of the rules on providing 78 subsidies, as well as analysis of the budgetary execution of subsidies. In addition, a comparative analysis of priorities, co-financed through subsidies, has been carried out and cross-financed priorities have been identified.
    Keywords: federal intergovernmental subsidies, regions, effectiveness
    Date: 2016–03–23
  13. By: Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract The paper develops a model to consistently estimate agglomeration and agglomeration economies in European NUTS3 regions. It is based on the empirical observation that the size of population across regions as well as of other economic variables tend to follow a Zipf distribution. Furthermore, the model is extended to capture agglomeration effects in traditional regional convergence estimations. Agglomeration is analysed for 25 European countries, including Macedonia and Serbia, and the years 2000 to 2012. Results indicate significant agglomeration effects on the level and growth of regional economic development, with agglomeration and agglomeration economies generally declining in the Western European countries and increasing the Central East and South East European countries.
    Keywords: Zipf’s Law, agglomeration economies, Europe, Western Balkans
    Date: 2015–11
  14. By: Mamuta, Mikhail (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Sorokina, O.S. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper deals with determination of the existing approaches to the regulation and supervision of credit cooperatives in the world, in particular, the components of effective regulation of credit cooperatives and the main recommendations on the application of proportionate risk-based model to regulation and supervision of non-bank financial institutions.
    Keywords: financial inclusion, microfinance, credit cooperation, non-banking lenders, regulation, supervision, prudential regulation
    Date: 2016–05–04
  15. By: Amat Adarov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Peter Havlik (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Gabor Hunya (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Leon Podkaminer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Graph of the month Exports of machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7) in total exports, in % (p. 1) Opinion corner New governments in Poland and Romania, and related expected changes (by Gábor Hunya and Leon Podkaminer; pp. 2-5) Trade competitiveness of Austrian and neighbouring regions (by Roman Römisch; pp. 6-12) Russia’s grand trade collapse (by Peter Havlik; pp. 13-18) Challenges of Eurasian economic integration (by Amat Adarov; pp. 19-24) Recommended reading (p. 25) Statistical Annex Monthly and quarterly statistics for Central, East and Southeast Europe (pp. 26-47)
    Keywords: competitiveness, trade balance, RCA, international trade, competitiveness, exchange rate, trade balance, Eurasian Economic Union, integration, customs union, Poland, Romania, elections, economic policy
    Date: 2015–12
  16. By: Sokolovska, Olena; Sokolovskyi, Dmytro
    Abstract: The article deals with problem of optimization of government behavior in trade policy decision-making in small open developing economy. Based on conceptual model of government behavior we define main elements of effective trade policy. We found both their conformity to certain economic framework and conditions of their changes with each other. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of government patterns of trade behavior showed that in order to regulate the small open developing economy its government should provide policy, based on applying of tax instruments, notably, tariffs; non-tariff measures in such conditions are as auxiliary tools. Systemic non-tariff restrictions could be regarded as an effective tool for developed innovative economies. The originality of the paper consists in developing of model of efficient government behavior in trade policy decision-making depending on the framework of national economy; also both conditions of untimely changes of government behavior patterns and ineffective frameworks appeared as consequence of these changes, were defined. We provide an econometric analysis in order to determine whether commodity exports are sensitive to reduction or elimination of tariffs (as in the case of Ukrainian exports and EU import duties). This analysis showed that now in Ukrainian economy there are commodities which are both sensitive and resistant to tariff changes.
    Keywords: government behavior, trade policy, tariffs, econometric analysis
    JEL: C50 F13 H20 H30
    Date: 2016–06–13
  17. By: Idrisov, Georgiy (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Taganov, B.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the impact of the positive terms of trade shock (rise in price of oil relative to other traded goods) on inequalities in wages at the regional level. The results show the benefit of that in the medium-term improvement in the conditions of Russia's trade increased inter-regional inequality in wages by increasing wages in all quintiles of the wage distribution (ie in all of the observed income groups) are more integrated into the world economy in the Federation. We have also shown that, although the terms of trade increased inter-regional inequality individual's wage, a decrease in premiums for the skill that matches the predictions of Heckscher-Ohlin and Stolper-Samuelson theorem.
    Keywords: trade shock, opennes of economy, Russia, income inequalty
    Date: 2016–03–31
  18. By: Elisa Gamberoni (European Central Bank); Christine Gartner (European Central Bank); Claire Giordano (Bank of Italy); Paloma Lopez-Garcia (European Central Bank)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of corruption in the business environment in explaining the efficiency of within-sector production factor allocation across firms in nine Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries in 2003-2012. Using a conditional convergence model, we find evidence of a positive relationship between corruption growth and both labour and capital misallocation dynamics, once country framework conditions are controlled for: this link is larger the smaller the country, the lower the degree of political stability and civil liberties, and the weaker the quality of its regulations. As input misallocation is one of the determinants of productivity growth, we further show that the correlation between changes in corruption and TFP growth is indeed negative. Our results also hold when we tackle a possible omitted variable bias by instrumenting corruption with two instrumental variables (the percentage of women in Parliament and freedom of the press). In conclusion, targeted action against corruption in the CEE region would be efficiency-enhancing.
    Keywords: bribes, capital misallocation, labour misallocation, total factor productivity
    JEL: D24 D73 O47
    Date: 2016–06
  19. By: Bai, Yu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Rozelle, Scott
    Abstract: China’s rapid development and urbanization has induced large numbers of rural residents to migrate from their homes in the countryside to urban areas in search of higher wages. As a consequence, it is estimated that more than 60 million children in rural China are left behind and live with relatives, typically their paternal grandparents. These children are called Left Behind Children (or LBCs). There are concerns about the potential negative effects of parental migration on the academic performance of the LBCs that could be due to the absence of parental care. However, it might also be that when a child’s parents work in the city away from home, their remittances can increase the household’s income and provide more resources and that this can lead to better academic performance. Hence, the net impact of out-migration on the academic performance of LBCs is unclear. This paper examines changes in academic performance before and after the parents of students out-migrate. We draw on a panel dataset collected by the authors of more than 13,000 students at 130 rural primary schools in ethnic minority areas of rural China. Using difference-in-difference and propensity score matching approaches, our results indicate that generally parental migration has significant, positive impacts on the academic performance of LBCs (which we measure using standardized English test scores). Heterogeneous analysis using our data demonstrates that the positive impact on LBCs is greater for poorer performing students.
    Keywords: migration, academic performance, left-behind children, difference-in-difference, rural China, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics, O12, O15,
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Juzhong Zhuang (Asian Development Bank, also associate of Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK); Shi Li (Beijing Normal University, China)
    Abstract: This paper examines underlying factors that could explain the decline in income inequality in China since 2008 and inquires whether the decline indicates Chinaís income inequality has peaked following the Kuznets hypothesis. The paper first identifies four key drivers of rising income inequality in China since the mid-1980: rising skill premium, declining share of labor income, increasing spatial inequality, and widening inequality in the distribution of wealth. It then provides evidence that the reversal of these drivers, with the exception of wealth inequality, could partly explains the decline in income inequality since 2008. The paper argues that since part of the reversal of these drivers is policy-induced, it is important that the policy actions continue for income inequality to decline further. The paper further argues that a critical factor underlying the Kuznets hypothesis is that taxation and transfers play a bigger role in income redistribution as a country becomes more developed, while their role is still limited in China, the future path of Chinaís income inequality may not be one-directional, and may stay high before personal income tax plays a bigger role.
    Keywords: Income inequality, the Chinese economy, Kuznets hypothesis
    JEL: D31 D63 N35
    Date: 2016–06
  21. By: Quan-Hoang Vuong; Ha Nguyen
    Abstract: Introduction: Less developed countries, Vietnam included, face serious challenges of inefficient diagnosis, inaccessibility to healthcare facilities, and high medical expenses. Information on medical costs, technical and professional capabilities of healthcare providers and service deliveries becomes influential when it comes to patients' decision on choices of healthcare providers.Methods: The study employs a data set containing 1,459 observations collected from a survey on Vietnamese patients in late 2015. The standard categorical data analysis is performed to provide statistical results, yielding insights from the empirical data.Results: Patients' socio-economic status (SES) is found to be associated with the degree of significance of key factors (i.e. medical costs, professional capabilities and service deliveries), but medical expenses are the single most important factor that influence a decision by the poor, 2.28 times as critical as the non-poor. In contrary, the non-poor tend to value technical capabilities and services more, with odds ratios being 1.54 and 1.32, respectively.Discussion: There exists a risk for the poor in decision making based on medical expenses solely. The solution may rest with: a) improved health insurance mechanism; and, b) obtaining additional revenues from value-added services, which can help defray the poor's financial burdens.
    Keywords: Medical expenses; Healthcare information; Healthcare policy; Patients' socio-economic status; Sociology of patients
    JEL: I12 Z13
    Date: 2016–06–17
  22. By: Jeon, Bang (School of Economics Drexel University); Wu, Ji (Southwestern University of Finance and Economics); Chen, Minghua (Southwestern University of Finance and Economics); Wang, Rui (Southwestern University of Finance and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the impact of foreign ownership on the risk-taking behavior of banks. Using bank-level panel data of more than 1,300 commercial banks in 32 emerging economies during 2000-2013, we find that foreign owned banks take on more risk than their domestic counterparts. We further examine several factors that may potentially contribute to foreign banks’ differentiated riskiness from four perspectives, namely, foreign banks’ informational disadvantages, agency problems, the contagious effect of parent banks’ financial conditions and the disparity between home and host markets. We find supportive evidence that these factors play a significant role in affecting foreign banks’ risk-taking.
    Keywords: Foreign banks; Bank risk-taking; Emerging economies
    JEL: F65 G15 G21
    Date: 2016–05–14
  23. By: Korytin, A.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Shatalova, Svetlana Sergeevna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The report presents the results of the search and analysis of the methods of the resident property tax development as well as the recommendations on the practical implementation of the property tax world experience in Russia. This work profoundly research the international experience in the property tax domain and analyze possible consequences of its adaptation based on the wide range of national datasets.
    Keywords: property tax development, Russia
    Date: 2016–03–23
  24. By: Dagmara Nikulin (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: The main aim of this article is to point out the possible measures of how to improve the study of informal employment in developed countries. We choose the case of Poland to examine whether the existing definitions and measurement methods are suitable for indicating the prevalence of informal employment. Firstly, we present the most popular definitions of informal employment, secondly we show the existing research on informal employment in Poland, and thirdly we assess the previous estimations of informal employment in Poland with regard to the definition’s scope. Finally, we propose some improvements that would help in studying this phenomenon in Poland. Through a critical analysis of existing research on informal employment we contribute to the existing literature in two ways: (i) by constructing the definitional frames of informal employment in Poland; and (ii) by pointing out the possible extensions of surveys devoted to informal employment in developed countries.
    Keywords: informal employment, Poland, undeclared work, shadow economy
    JEL: E26 J46 O17
    Date: 2016–06
  25. By: Luca Flóra Drucker (ELTE Department of Economics and Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences); Daniel Horn (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and ELTE Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The Polish educational reform in 1999 is often considered successful as the results of the Polish students, and especially that of the low-performers, on the OECD PISA tests have improved significantly since the introduction of the new system. The reform extended the previous 8-year undivided comprehensive education to 9 years, core curricula were introduced and the examination, admission and assessment systems were changed. It has been argued before that this longer comprehensive education improved the test performance of worse performing students; hence increasing average performance and decreasing inter-school variation of test scores. However, the lack of reliable impact assessment on long-run labour market effects of this reform is awaiting. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by looking at the causal effects of the reform. By comparing the labour market outcomes of the pre- and post-reform cohorts, we find a non-negligible and positive effect. We look at employment and wages as outcomes. Using data from the EU-Statistics on Income and Living conditions, and pooling the waves between 2005 and 2013 and taking the 20-27 year-olds, we generate a quasi-panel of observations to estimate the treatment effect by difference-in-difference estimation. We find evidence that the reform was successful on the long-run: the post-reform group is more likely to be employed and they also earn higher wages. On average, the treatment group is around 2-3% more likely to be employed, which effect is driven by the lowest educated. The post-reform cohort also earns more: we find an over 3% difference in real wages, which is also more pronounced for the lowest educated.
    Keywords: education reform, Poland, detracking, labor market, difference-in-difference
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2016–03
  26. By: Aganbegyan, Abel (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kleeva, Lyudmila (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Krotova, Nadezhda (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Pechurina, A.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper presents a new outlook Vital to 2030 taking into account the new emerging trends in fertility and mortality. Carried out: analysis of population depopulation in the period 1992-2005. with the conclusions of the negative nature of the decline in fertility and increase mortality, in order to avoid this situation in future; evaluation of "Health" national program in the 2006-2013 biennium, providing overcoming of depopulation, with the conclusions and suggestions for further demographic policy.; study the negative trend began fertility decline due to the decline in the number of women of childbearing age. Identification based on the experience of France and other developed countries to mitigate the negative trend began fertility decline due to the decline in the number of women of childbearing age by increasing the total fertility rate has allowed to determine the possibility of a more intense reduction in the working age population mortality, especially infant mortality and mortality rates, where our rates in 2.5-3,5 times higher than in Western Europe. There was also held a recreational complex analysis of Russia.
    Keywords: depopulation, Russia, fertility, mortality
    Date: 2016–04–20
  27. By: Michael Davidson; Fredrich Kahrl; Valerie Karplus
    Abstract: We propose a general taxonomy of the political economy challenges to wind power development and integration, highlighting the implications in terms of actors, interests, and risks. Applying this framework to three functions in China.s electricity sector.planning and project approval, generator cost recovery, and balancing area coordination.we find evidence of challenges common across countries with significant wind investments, despite institutional and industry characteristics that are unique to China.We argue that resolving these political economy challenges is as important to facilitating the role of wind and other renewable energies in a low carbon energy transition as providing dedicated technical and policy support. China is no exception.
    Keywords: Renewable energy sources
    Date: 2016
  28. By: Gromov, Vladimir (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Malinina, Tatiana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA); Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The paper concerns the international and Russian practice of taxation of income from trusts. The proposals on the change of approach for taxation of such income according to the applicable law are formulated.
    Keywords: taxation of income, trusts
    Date: 2016–03–31
  29. By: Kazenin, Konstantin Igorevich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The preprint reviews the phenomenon of institutional competition regulators in solving commercial disputes in the two cities of Dagestan - Makhachkala and Khasavyurt. On the basis of field research data shows that some types of business conflicts in these cities are solved with the use of such controls as Islamic law and traditional ("conventional") right. The reasons for this phenomenon and propose recommendations for policy authorities against him.
    Keywords: institutional competition regulators, Dagestan, Makhachkala, Khasavyurt
    Date: 2016–05–04
  30. By: Morgunova, O.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Turuntseva, Marina (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Seasonal adjustment of Socio-economic indicators is a standard tool that allows to eliminate the time-series of seasonal fluctuations and, thus, to solve (at least partially) the problem of modeling the seasonality, as in the one-dimensional models, as well as in structural macroeconomic models. The task of seasonal adjustment in many countries is a prerogative of the official statistical services: they spend the seasonal adjustment using the same methodology and publish the relevant data (and sometimes their only). Unfortunately, at the moment Rosstat does not publish seasonally adjusted figures (except a few). As a result of the empirical studies authors have to seasonally smooth the time series by themselves, using the built-in modern software packages procedure.
    Keywords: socio-economic indicators, seasonal adjustment
    Date: 2016–03–21
  31. By: Midori Matsushima (Faculty of Business Administration, Osaka University of Commerce); Hiroyuki Yamada (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Yasuharu Shimamura (Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies, Kobe University)
    Abstract: Vietnam is one of the leading countries moving towards universal health coverage (UHC) among developing and emerging countries. This paper examines how utilisation and the supply side have responded to the expansion of health insurance coverage. In the analysis, we use provincial panel data of 2006 to 2012 for every two years, which is constructed from several data sources. The results show that the utilisation has only slightly responded to the expansion of health insurance coverage, and nearly no positive supply-side response has been observed during the expansion. Also, the results of detailed analysis of health workers imply that there has been an unbalanced allocation of health workers between provincial hospitals and commune health stations despite the importance of commune health stations in providing primary healthcare. Our further analysis also reveals that the out-of-pocket (OOP) burden has not decreased and the affordability of healthcare services has not changed in response to health insurance coverage. Based on our findings, we argue that supply-side factors might have constrained utilisation, and that health insurance has hardly eased liquidity constraints.
    Keywords: universal health coverage, Vietnam, utilisation, supply
    JEL: I13 I18
    Date: 2016–05–23

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