nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2013‒10‒11
24 papers chosen by
J. David Brown
IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor)

  1. From divergence to convergence: re-evaluating the history behind China’s economic boom By Brandt, Loren; Ma, Debin; Rawski, Thomas G.
  2. Does cultural diversity help or hinder entrepreneurs? Evidence from eastern Europe and central Asia By Elena Nikolova; Dora Simroth
  3. Migration from Ukraine: Brawn or Brain? New Survey Evidence By Simon Commander; Olexandr Nikolaychuk; Dmytro Vikhrov
  4. The Intergenerational Inequality of Health in China By Tor Eriksson; Jay Pan; Xuezheng Qin
  5. “准官员”的晋升机制:来自中国央企的证据 By Yang, Ruilong; Wang, Yuan; Nie, Huihua
  6. The global welfare impact of China: Trade integration and technological change By Julian Di Giovanni; Andrei A. Levchenko; Jing Zhang
  8. Growth dynamics and conditional convergence among Chinese provinces: a panel data investigation using system GMM estimator By Céline BONNEFOND
  9. China's Capital Controls - Through the Prism of Covered Interest Differentials By Yin-Wong Cheung; Risto Herrala
  10. Central Government's Infrastructure Investment across Chinese Regions: A Dynamic Spatial Panel Data Approach By Zheng, Xinye; Li, Fanghua; Song, Shunfeng; Yu, Yihua
  11. Monitoring innovation activities of innovation process participants (2011: R&D organisations) By Leonid Gokhberg; Tatiana Kuznetsova; Vitaly Roud; Stanislav Zaichenko
  12. The Role of Coal Mine Regulation in Regional Development By Xu, Hangtian; Nakajima, Kentaro
  13. User innovation - empirical evidence from Russia By Anna Zaytseva; Olga Shuvalova; Dirk Meissner
  14. Financial Health and Firm Productivity : Firm-level Evidence from Viet Nam By Shandre M. Thangavelu; Aekapol Chongvilaivan
  15. Integrated Modelling of Economic-Energy-Environment Scenarios - The Impact of China and India's Economic Growth on Energy Use and CO2 Emissions By Fabien Roques; Olivier Sassi; Céline Guivarch; Henri Waisman; Renaud Crassous; Jean-Charles Hourcade
  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Chinese agriculture: distinguishing technical and economic potentials By Wen Wang; Frank Koslowski; Dominic Moran; Dali Rani Nayak; Eli Saetnan; Erda Lin; Liping Guo; Guodong Han; Xiaotang Jug
  17. Exchange rate volatility, financial constraints, and trade : empirical evidence from Chinese firms By Heericourt, Jerome; Poncet, Sandra
  18. Lisbon Strategy implementation in 12 New EU Members – multivariate analysis of structural indicators By Magdalena Olczyk
  19. Does it matter how much land your neighbour owns? The functioning of land markets in Poland from a social comparison perspective By Falkowski, Jan
  20. Investing abroad from the bottom of the productivity ladder – BRICS multinationals in Europe By Sanfilippo , Marco
  21. Poland's new golden age : shifting from Europe's periphery to its center By Piatkowski, Marcin
  22. Estimating the FDI Impact on Economic Growth and Export Performances of the European Economies in Transition By Olivera Kostoska; Pece Mitrevski
  23. Russian Federation - Export Diversification through Competition and Innovation : A Policy Agenda By World Bank
  24. A decade of poverty reduction in Kazakhstan 2000-2009: growth and/or redistribution? By Alma Kudebayeva; Armando Barrientos

  1. By: Brandt, Loren; Ma, Debin; Rawski, Thomas G.
    Abstract: China’s long-term economic dynamics pose a formidable challenge to economic historians. The Qing Empire (1644-1911), the world’s largest national economy before 1800, experienced a tripling of population during the 17th and 18th centuries with no signs of diminishing per capita income. While the timing remains in dispute, a vast gap emerged between newly rich industrial nations and China’s lagging economy in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. Only with an unprecedented growth spurt beginning in the late 1970s did this great divergence separating China from the global leaders substantially diminish, allowing China to regain its former standing among the world’s largest economies. This essay develops an integrated framework for understanding that entire history, including both the divergence and the recent convergent trend. We explain how deeply embedded political and economic institutions that contributed to a long process of extensive growth before 1800 subsequently prevented China from capturing the benefits associated with the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, the gradual erosion of these historic constraints and of new obstacles erected by socialist planning eventually opened the door to China’s current boom. Our analysis links China’s recent development to important elements of its past, while using recent success to provide fresh perspectives on the critical obstacles undermining earlier modernization efforts, and their eventual removal.
    JEL: B1 O53 N0
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Elena Nikolova (EBRD); Dora Simroth (European School of Management and Technology)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of religious and linguistic diversity in a given locality on individual entrepreneurial behaviour, and finds that cultural diversity and entrepreneurship follow an inverted U-shaped pattern. We make three theoretical contributions. Unlike previous research, we are able to analyse both the attempt to establish an entrepreneurial business (‘entrepreneurial trial’) and success of entrepreneurs. Moreover, we argue that the two types of diversity matter at different stages of entrepreneurship – religious diversity is tightly linked to entrepreneurial trial, while linguistic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurial success. In addition, by identifying a non-linear relationship between diversity and entrepreneurship, we put into perspective previous research that is divided on whether cultural heterogeneity positively or negatively affects firm, regional and country performance. We use a new survey data set that covers more than 30,000 households in eastern Europe and central Asia (the Life in Transition Survey 2010).
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, transition region, diversity
    JEL: L26 P31 Z12
    Date: 2013–06
  3. By: Simon Commander (Altura Partners, EBRD, IE Business School); Olexandr Nikolaychuk (CERGE-EI, Prague); Dmytro Vikhrov (CERGE-EI, Prague)
    Abstract: This paper studies selection and labour market outcomes among Ukrainian migrants using unique data from a survey conducted in Ukraine between August and October 2011. We found that migrants are positively selected in terms of age and education yetthis is not associated, as might be expected, with their labour market outcomes. Notably, around half of the migrants are employed in occupations for which they are over-qualified. We suggest that this downshifting in occupation can be partly explained by the absence of the conventional link between education and skills in Ukraine. We compare pre- and post-migration labour market outcomes and find that the probability of downshifting decreases with the duration of stay in a foreign country and knowledge of English or the local language. Significantly, someone who downshifted prior to migration in their home country was more likely to downshift abroad. Further, we found that migrants to the EU are more likely to downshift when compared to other destinations.
    Keywords: migration, selection, occupation downshift, survey data
    JEL: F22 J24
    Date: 2013–04
  4. By: Tor Eriksson (Department of Economics and Business, Aarhus University); Jay Pan (West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University); Xuezheng Qin (School of Economics, Peking University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality of opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is persistent with different health measures and various model specifications, and is robust when unobserved household heterogeneity is removed. We also find that the parents’ (especially the mothers’) socio-economic characteristics and environmental / health care choices are strongly correlated with their own and their children’s health, supporting the “nature-nurture interaction” hypothesis. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition further indicates that 15% to 27% of the rural-urban inequality of child health is attributable to the endowed inequality from their parents’ health. An important policy implication of our study is that the increasing inequality of income and opportunity in China can be ameliorated through the improvement of the current generation’s health status and living standards.
    Keywords: Intergenerational transmission, Health, Inequality, China
    JEL: I14 I12
    Date: 2013–09–30
  5. By: Yang, Ruilong; Wang, Yuan; Nie, Huihua
    Abstract: Using political mobility data for 189 leaders from China’s central state-owned enterprise (CSOEs) in 2008-2011, for the first time this paper investigates the mechanism of political turnover for leaders as quasi-government officers in CSOEs. We find that: (1) the likelihood of promotion of these leaders increases with their economic performance measured as growth rate of operating revenue, while the likelihood of demotion decreases with their economic performance; (2) these leaders with CCP central committee member have higher probability of promotion than their counterpart; (3) these leaders with Ph.D. degree have higher probability of promotion than their counterpart; (4) compared to growth rate of operating revenue, growth rate of maintaining and increasing the value of state capital has no significant effect on promotion; (5) the compensation linked to position in CSOEs has no impact on leaders’ promotion, which indicates that leaders in CSOEs look more likely government officials rather than professional managers.
    Keywords: state-owned enterprise, promotion, government officer, economic performance, guangxi
    JEL: D86 J63 M51
    Date: 2012–04–01
  6. By: Julian Di Giovanni; Andrei A. Levchenko; Jing Zhang
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the global welfare impact of China's trade integration and technological change in a multi-country quantitative Ricardian-Heckscher-Ohlin model. We simulate two alternative growth scenarios: a "balanced" one in which China's productivity grows at the same rate in each sector, and an "unbalanced" one in which China's comparative disadvantage sectors catch up disproportionately faster to the world productivity frontier. Contrary to a well-known conjecture (Samuelson 2004), the large majority of countries experience significantly larger welfare gains when China's productivity growth is biased towards its comparative disadvantage sectors. This finding is driven by the inherently multilateral nature of world trade.
    Keywords: China, productivity growth, international trade
    JEL: F11 F43 O33 O47
    Date: 2013–10
  7. By: Evgeniy Kutsenko (Senior Research Fellow, Centre for S&T, Innovation and Information Policies, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University – Higher School of Economics (HSE),); Dirk Meissner (Deputy Head, Laboratory for Science and Technology Studies, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Cluster policy is recognized as one of the pivotal elements of state-of-art innovation policy. State support for clusters helps to take into account regional peculiarities and engage the most innovative local actors into the process of innovation policy drafting and implementation. Cluster development stimulates trust building and enhances knowledge spillovers among different organizations in the region. Finally the cluster approach makes innovation policy more systemic by coordinating measures aimed to support different actors (large companies, SMEs, universities, venture funds) towards comprehensive efforts linking the most perspective localized industries (ecosystems). The development of clusters has been determined as one of the priorities of the Strategy of Innovative Development of the Russian Federation for the period to 2020 which was confirmed end 2010. In the framework of this Strategy the first national cluster program was launched in 2012. The paper is devoted to the detailed description of the background of the national cluster program in Russia and its first phase – the selection of the pilot innovative clusters – which was implemented last year. Special attention is given to the comparison of planned design of the Russian cluster program with such widely known cluster programs as the BioRegio, InnoRegio and Les poles de competitivite. The similarities and peculiarities of the Russian program have been defined that allowed to identify several most significant areas for improvement.
    Keywords: Clusters, knowledge spillovers, cluster policy, innovation policy.
    JEL: O14 O17 O25 O38 O P16 R11 R
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Céline BONNEFOND
    Abstract: The paper aims at contributing to the debate on conditional convergence across Chinese provinces by using the most recent techniques of dynamics panel data models. The analysis covers twenty nine Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2009 and is based on the estimation of growth equations using system GMM estimator. Three main results can be drawn from the empirical investigations conducted as part of this study. First, investment in physical capital and education have played an important role in promoting economic growth and may be considered as mean of reducing regional disparities. Second, the hypothesis of conditional convergence is verified over the period 1995-2009. Third, the speed of convergence is found to be faster during the period 2004-2009, which indicates that Chinese provinces have converged more quickly over the most recent period. We suggest that this result may be a consequence of the implementation of regional development programs during the 2000s, and that it may also reflect the existence of growth spillover effects.
    Keywords: China, regional disparities, growth, conditional convergence, dynamic panel data, system GMM
    JEL: C33 P25 R11
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Yin-Wong Cheung (City University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research); Risto Herrala (Bank of Finland)
    Abstract: We study the renminbi (RMB) covered interest differential - an indicator of the effectiveness of capital controls. It is found that the differential is not shrinking over time and, in fact, appears larger after the global financial crisis than before. That is, capital controls in China are still substantial and effective. In addition to exchange rate changes and volatilities, the RMB covered interest differential is affected by credit market tightness indicators. The marginal explanatory power of these macroeconomic factors, however, is small relative to the autoregressive component and the dummy variables that capture changes in China's policy.
    Keywords: NDF Implied RMB Interest Rate, Capital Controls, Asymmetric Response, Macro Determinants, Credit Market Tightness
    JEL: E44 F31 F32
    Date: 2013–09
  10. By: Zheng, Xinye; Li, Fanghua; Song, Shunfeng; Yu, Yihua
    Abstract: This study employs spatial panel techniques to examine determinants of regional allocation of infrastructure investment made by the central government. Using a sample of 31 Chinese provinces over the 2001-2008 period, we derived four major empirical findings. First, there exist substantial spatial interactions of central government's investment across regions. Second, the central investment exhibits a highly persistent effect. Third, the central government attempts to balance equity and efficiency in its decision-making. Last, the political factor plays a significant role in the regional infrastructure investment.
    Keywords: Infrastructure investment; efficiency-equity tradeoff; spatial interaction
    JEL: C33 H54 R0
    Date: 2013–10–06
  11. By: Leonid Gokhberg (National Research University Higher School of Economics, First Vice Rector; Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of knowledge); Tatiana Kuznetsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics. Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of knowledge. Director of the Centre for S&T, Innovation and Information Policies); Vitaly Roud (National Research University Higher School of Economics. Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of knowledge. Research assistant); Stanislav Zaichenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics. Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of knowledge. Senior research assistant)
    Abstract: “Monitoring innovation activities of innovation process participants” is a project which has been carried out by the Higher School of Economics (HSE) for several years to promote monitoring and analysis of innovation issues in general, and on specific activities of its particular actors from a scientific research perspective. The project is aimed at accumulating empirical knowledge about the nature and types of interaction between various actors of the national innovation system. In 2009-2010 the study was targeted at manufacturing and service sector companies while the 2010-2011 study targeted at R&D organisations. The specific objective for 2011 was studying various aspects of applied research organisations’ involvement in the innovation process (application of R&D results in the economy). The study yielded the following results: - A concept for monitoring R&D organisations’ innovation activities was proposed, including operational definition of such activities; - Survey programme and tools to monitor Russian R&D organisations were developed, including advanced methodological and procedural approaches as well as practical experience; - Results of R&D organisations’ innovation activities survey were analysed and compared with available statistical data; the collected data also allows to identify and systematise various factors and conditions affecting innovation activities of these organisations; Eventually areas for updating the survey’s concept and tools were identified
    Keywords: R&D institutions, public research institutes, S&T results, knowledge transfer, technology transfer, innovation, research management, innovation management, microdata, Russia
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Xu, Hangtian; Nakajima, Kentaro
    Abstract: In response to the high mortality rates and low productivity in coal mining, China began regulating coal mines in the 1990s, which has reshaped its coal economy. We empirically investigate the relationship between coal mine regulation and economic growth in China. Using two difference-in-difference approaches to compare the pre- and post-regulation periods, as well as regions with and without rich coal endowment, we find that regulation positively affects regional economy. This result is further illustrated using an OLS estimation that uses mortality rate in coal mining as a proxy for measuring the quality of regulation. The impacts are not limited only to the intra-coal industry but also spillover to the economy of related regions by relieving the crowding-out effects of coal abundance, that is, resource abundance tends to crowd out investment, human capital and innovation in non-resource sectors and thus hinders economic growth.
    Keywords: coal mine regulation, crowding-out effects, mortality rate, resource curse, regional development
    JEL: L71 O43 P28 Q32 R11
    Date: 2013–09
  13. By: Anna Zaytseva (Centre d'etudes de la vie politique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles); Olga Shuvalova (Research Fellow, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, Laboratory for Economics of Innovation); Dirk Meissner (Deputy Head, Laboratory for Science and Technology Studies, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Innovations are commonly seen as resulting from the commercialization of new ideas and technological goods by dedicated organizations, especially firms. This conception is reflected in a producer-oriented approach to science, technology and innovation policy-making (STI). However a new understanding of the role of users within innovation processes is gradually taking shape, with profound policy implications. User innovations are often not based on technological improvement or R&D and remain largely under-estimated. Although there are many case studies of user innovators at the industry level, the role of users is not captured by general statistics on innovation. Up to now the only exception is the empirical evidence-based study of user innovation carried out in the UK in 2009. Recently it was complemented by empirical data from the USA and Japan. The present article aims to contribute to closing the gap of empirical data on user engagement into innovation activities at cross-country level. The analysis is based on the results from a national survey carried out in Russia in 2011. The findings contribute to the better understanding of user innovators profile and of the factors which underpin user innovator activities in the context of emerging economies. The article is organized as follows. The first section reviews the relevant literature on the user innovation concept and the main features of user innovations as compared to producer-generated innovations, as well as on the measurement of user innovators. The second section presents the research methodology and the main empirical results. Finally, the paper discusses some of main analytical and policy implications of the empirical findings
    Keywords: User Innovation, Innovation Sources, Open Innovation, Innovation Management, Demand Driven Innovation
    JEL: L21 M10 M14 M31 O21 O32 O33
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Shandre M. Thangavelu (Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)); Aekapol Chongvilaivan
    Abstract: Does financial health shore up firm productivity? This paper empirically investigates this question and presents productivity as another driving factor in translating financial development into real economic progress. Our empirical framework employs Levinsohn and Petrin’s (2003) semi-parametric estimation of total factor productivity (TFP) using firm-level panel data during 2002–2008, and incorporates financial health variables into conventional determinants of firm productivity. Our findings suggest that liquidity and access to external credit boosts firm productivity, with the latter particularly imperative for exporting and/or importing firms. We also present supplementary results regarding economies of scale, high-tech capital accumulation, human capital investment and foreign ownership.
    Keywords: Financial health, firm productivity, Vietnam, TFP, panel data, Semiparametric Estimation
    JEL: O16 O25 O53
    Date: 2013–09
  15. By: Fabien Roques (EPRG - University of Cambridge); Olivier Sassi (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Henri Waisman (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Renaud Crassous (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: A hybrid framework coupling the bottom-up energy sector WEM model with the top-down general equilibrium model IMACLIM-R is implemented to capture the macroeconomic feedbacks of Chinese and Indian economic growth on energy and emissions scenarios. The iterative coupling procedure captures the detailed representation of energy use and supply while ensuring the microeconomic and macroeconomic consistency of the different scenarios studied. The dual representation of the hybrid model facilitates the incorporation of energy sector expertise in internally consistent scenarios. The paper describes how the hybrid model was used to assess the effect of uncertainty on economic growth in China and India in the energy and emissions scenarios of the International Energy Agency.
    Date: 2013–09–30
  16. By: Wen Wang; Frank Koslowski; Dominic Moran; Dali Rani Nayak; Eli Saetnan; Erda Lin; Liping Guo; Guodong Han; Xiaotang Jug
    Abstract: China is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions with 7467 million tons (Mt) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) in 2005, with agriculture accounting for 11% of this total. As elsewhere, agricultural emissions mitigation policy in China faces a range of challenges due to the biophysical complexity and heterogeneity of farming systems. Existing research has contributed to improving our understanding of the technical potential of mitigation measures in this sector (i.e. what works). But for policy purposes it is important to convert this into a feasible economic potential, which provides a perspective on whether agricultural emissions reduction (measures) are low cost relative to mitigation measures and overall potential offered in other sectors of the economy. We develop a bottom-up marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) representing the cost of mitigation measures applicable in addition to baseline agricultural practices. The MACC demonstrates that while the sector offers a maximum technical potential of 412 MtCO2e in 2020, a reduction of 154 MtCO2e is potentially available at zero or negative cost (i.e. a cost saving), and 195 MtCO2e (approximately 47% of the total) can be abated at a threshold carbon price = ¥ 100 (approximately £10) per tCO2e. Our findings highlight the important cost-effectiveness of fertilizer best management practices, probiotics additives to animal diets, and animal breeding practices. We outline the assumptions underlying MACC construction and indicate the scientific and socioeconomic barriers to realizing the indicated levels of mitigation.
    Keywords: agriculture, climate change, greenhouse gas mitigation, China, marginal abatement cost curve (MACC)
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Heericourt, Jerome; Poncet, Sandra
    Abstract: This paper studies how firm-level export performance is affected by Real Exchange Rate (RER) volatility and investigates whether this effect depends on existing financial constraints. The empirical analysis relies on export data for more than 100,000 Chinese exporters over the 2000-6 period. The results confirm a trade-deterring effect of RER volatility. Firms'decision to begin exporting and the exported value decrease for destinations with higher exchange rate volatility; besides, this effect is magnified for financially vulnerable firms. As expected, financial development seems to dampen this negative impact, especially on the intensive margin of export. These results provide micro-founded evidence suggesting that the existence of well-developed financial markets allows firms to hedge exchange rate risk. The results also support a key role of financial constraints in determining the macro impact of RER volatility on real outcomes.
    Keywords: Emerging Markets,Economic Conditions and Volatility,Currencies and Exchange Rates,Debt Markets,Fiscal&Monetary Policy
    Date: 2013–10–01
  18. By: Magdalena Olczyk (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to identify diversity between the EU-15 and the New Members in their implementation of the Lisbon Strategy in the period 2000-2010. By analyzing a set of structural indicators, we aim to fill a gap in the literature: a lack of publications providing complex evaluation of the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy using measurable indicators. The results of our analyses confirm the hypothesis of a large gap between the EU-15 countries and the 12 New Members in key areas of the Lisbon Strategy. According to rankings given by our taxonomic analyses, a high level of the indicators selected is confirmed only for the EU-15 countries and only three New Members belong to a group presenting the average level of these indicators. This study demonstrates a need for a significant intensification of the EU cohesion policy, which is one of the main tools for achieving the Lisbon Strategy goals.
    Keywords: Lisbon Strategy, Lisbon targets, European Union, multivariate analysis, structural indicators
    JEL: C00 E60 O52 P11
    Date: 2013–09
  19. By: Falkowski, Jan
    Abstract: While many factors have been studied in relation to the functioning of land markets, the role of land distribution has received relatively little attention. In this paper, we ask to what extent farmers’ propensity to buy land is related to the difference between them and their neighbours in terms of land ownership. To this end, we employ the concept of relative deprivation. Drawing on micro-level data from the transition period in Poland and using both OLS and instrumental variables strategy, we find that interpersonal comparisons with others in one’s reference group may have motivated a farmer’s behaviour in the land market. In particular, the propensity to purchase land is positively associated with experiencing higher relative deprivation. In addition, this relationship waned over time in a predictable manner: late in the transition period it was weaker than at the beginning of the period.
    Date: 2013–08
  20. By: Sanfilippo , Marco (BOFIT)
    Abstract: This paper analyses differences in total factor productivity and other competitiveness indicators of emerging multinationals (EMNEs) from Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) against their counterparts from developed countries and domestic MNEs. The current literature suggests that early internationalisation strategies by EMNEs are characterised by a lack of experience in diverse economic and cultural contexts and are explicitly driven by asset-exploration strategies. If true, this should translate into significant differences in performance, especially when they invest in developed countries. Based on a large database on foreign affiliates in Europe, results find EMNEs at the bottom of the productivity ladder, with a productivity gap around 20-30 percentage points compared to more established competitors. Moreover, the paper points to high heterogeneity among EMNEs that affects their relative performance according to their current levels of productivity or to differences in their sectorial and geographic patterns.
    Keywords: emerging market multinationals; total factor productivity; foreign direct investment
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2013–10–02
  21. By: Piatkowski, Marcin
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is (i) to help fill the gap in knowledge on the long-term economic history of Poland; (ii) to provide a new perspective to the debate on the economic future of Poland, with a special focus on its historically unprecedented post-transition growth experience; and (iii) to analyze critically long-term growth projections for Poland. The paper argues that (i) Poland has just had probably the best 20 years in its economic history, growing the fastest among all European economies and one of the fastest worldwide; (ii) by 2013, it Poland achieved levels of income, quality of life, and well-being likely never experienced before, including relative to Western Europe, a natural benchmark; and (iii) Poland is well placed to continue converging with the Western European levels of income, permanently moving from the economic periphery of Europe, where it languished for centuries, to the European economic center. The twenty-first century thus promises to become Poland's new Golden Age. The paper calls for further research on the lessons from Poland's successful growth model for other countries in the region and beyond as well as on the long-term implications of the rise of Poland for the future of Europe.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Emerging Markets,Population Policies,Achieving Shared Growth,Labor Policies
    Date: 2013–10–01
  22. By: Olivera Kostoska; Pece Mitrevski
    Abstract: Within the last two decades, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been observed as one of the prime instruments in the process of restructuring the European economies in transition. Many scholars argue that FDI is expected to be a source of valuable technology transfer thus might certainly have positive effects on host country development efforts. Nonetheless, there are no clear-cut findings about the FDI genuine performances in supporting the economic growth, productivity and export improvements within the European transition countries. Using a large and comprehensive data set, we will therefore analyze the linkage between FDI and above mentioned variables, so as to recommend national policy appropriate measures aimed at averting negative and strengthening the positive FDI spillovers.
    Date: 2013–09
  23. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Private Sector Development - E-Business Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Economic Theory and Research Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Environmental Economics and Policies Environment
    Date: 2013–04
  24. By: Alma Kudebayeva; Armando Barrientos
    Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the main factors behind the strong decline in poverty experienced in Kazakhstan. Specifically, it examines the contribution of growth and redistribution to household consumption and to poverty indicators in Kazakhstan for the period 2001-2009. The analysis relies on estimates of pro-poor growth indices using cross-sections of household data. It finds that growth has been strongly pro-poor. Growth was the main driver behind the fall in poverty in the first half of the decade, but redistribution becomes important in sustaining poverty reduction in the latter part of the decade. Redistribution was crucial to sustaining poverty reduction in the aftermath of the financial crisis.
    Date: 2013

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