nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2013‒01‒12
sixteen papers chosen by
J. David Brown
IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor)

  1. Life (Dis)satisfaction and the Decision to Migrate: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe By Vladimir Otrachshenko; Olga Popova
  2. Human Capital, Consumption, and Housing Wealth in Transition By Fidrmuc, Jarko; Senaj, Matus
  3. Gender Discrimination in Hiring: Evidence from 19,130 Resumes in China By Zhou, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jie; Song, Xuetao
  4. Regional human capital in Republican and New China: Its spread, quality and effects on economic growth By Van Leeuwen, Bas; van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli; Foldvari, Peter
  5. Testing the covariance stationarity of CEE stocks By Lyócsa, Štefan; Baumöhl, Eduard
  6. Quality of Secondary Education in Russia: Between Soviet Legacy and Challenges of Global Competitiveness By Baranov, Igor N.
  7. Technological Capabilities of Chinese Enterprises: Who is Going to Compete Abroad? By Böing, Philipp; Müller, Elisabeth
  8. К вопросу о классификации российских журналов по экономике и смежным дисциплинам By Muravyev, Alexander
  9. Influence of Social Networks on the entrance to foreign markets: Evidence from three Russian entrepreneurial firms By Shirokova, G. V.; Storchevoy, M. A.
  10. Study on Economic Carrying Capacity of Industries Transfer from the Coastal areas to the Central region in China based on Employment Change Forecast By Xiao, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Jia-Hua; Liao, Shuang-Hong
  11. Micro-enterprises in the Russian economy: Current situation and development trends By Serova, Liudmila S.
  12. Country effects in CEE3 stock market networks: a preliminary study By Výrost, Tomáš
  13. Separation of Management and Control in SMEs from Emerging Markets: The Role of Institutions By Shirokova, G.V.; Knatko, D.M.; Vega, G.
  14. Innovative development of universities: Top Russian universities By Kazantsev, A K.
  15. Analiza razvojnih dokumenata Republike Hrvatske By Hrvoje Mirosevic
  16. Assessing the efficiency of HRD technologies in knowledge-intensive firms By Zavyalova, E. K.; Kosheleva, S. V.

  1. By: Vladimir Otrachshenko; Olga Popova
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of life satisfaction on the individual intention to migrate. The impacts of individual characteristics and of country macroeconomic variables on the intention to migrate are analyzed jointly. Differently from other studies, we allow for life satisfaction to serve as a mediator between macro-economic variables and the intention to migrate. Using the Eurobarometer Survey for 27 Central Eastern European (CEE) and Western European (non-CEE) countries, we find that people have a higher intention to migrate when dissatisfied with life. The socio-economic variables and macroeconomic conditions have an effect on the intention to migrate indirectly through life satisfaction. The impact of life satisfaction on the intention to migrate for middle-aged individuals with past experience of migration, low level of education, and with a low or average income from urban areas is higher in CEE countries than in non-CEE countries. JEL codes: I31, J61
    Keywords: life satisfaction, migration, decision making
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Fidrmuc, Jarko; Senaj, Matus
    Abstract: This paper focuses on human capital and physical capital of households in Slovakia during the economic reforms of the last two decades. We compare households who entered the labor market before and after the economic reforms in 1990. On the one hand, we study the returns to education by different labor market cohorts using household consumption surveys. On the other hand, we analyze the determinants of housing wealth and its impact on consumption. We show that old cohorts are characterized by lower returns to human capital and consumption levels, but higher housing wealth. Thus, we do not identify a clear pattern of winners and losers from transition. --
    JEL: D12 J24 C31
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Zhou, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jie; Song, Xuetao
    Abstract: We study gender discrimination in hiring markets by sending 19,130 fictitious matched resumes in response to professional employment advertisements posted on major Internet employment boards in China for positions such as engineers, accountants, secretaries, and marketing professionals in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Wuhan, and Chengdu. Our results show that, in general, state-owned firms tend to prefer male applicants. Foreign and private firms tend to prefer female applicants. On one hand, this evidence supports the hypothesis that economic reform and the market economy may mitigate gender discrimination. On the other hand, this evidence is consistent with statistics that describe discrimination based on gender segregation and information asymmetry that originated with higher ratios of female workers in foreign and private firms. With respect to regional income disparity, we find that the differences in gender discrimination between first- and second-tier cities are not significant. This result indicates that economic reform exerts limited mitigation effect on discrimination. We also find no evidence of taste discrimination based on traditional son preference in China.
    Keywords: Discrimination; Audit Study; Gender; Employment
    JEL: J71 O12
    Date: 2013–01–03
  4. By: Van Leeuwen, Bas; van Leeuwen-Li, Jieli; Foldvari, Peter
    Abstract: In recent decades there has been increasing attention for Chinese economic development. There has been a big debate though if its growth is caused by capital accumulation (perspiration factors) or driven by Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth (inspiration factors). The difference between both stances is quite substantial since, if the perspiration theory is correct, one expects the growth of the Chinese economy to slow down over time as the capital accumulation grows increasingly less efficient. However, so far this question is difficult to analyse for China since we lack information on one of the factors of production, human capital. To analyse this question, in this paper we develop a new dataset on human capital for the provinces of China between 1922 and 2010. Using our new dataset, together with physical capital and per capita GDP, allows us to do a TFP analysis for sub periods. We find a continuously negative TFP growth suggesting that reduction in productivity was a structural feature of the Chinese economy. If true, this was to lend support to the perspiration theory and would suggest a slowdown of the Chinese economy in the future. However, standard growth accounting allocates both technical efficiency of the factors of production and the general technical development to TFP. Subtracting technical efficiency from TFP growth, we find that general technological development turns increasingly positive in the 1990s and 2000s. This suggests that, whereas until the reform period China was largely driven by capital accumulation, afterwards general technical development got an increasingly prominent place giving hope for continued economic development in the future.
    Keywords: education; human capital; China; history; growth; inequality; regional development
    JEL: H7 P3 N15 H52 O4
    Date: 2011–04–11
  5. By: Lyócsa, Štefan; Baumöhl, Eduard
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether the daily stock returns of the Polish, Czech and Hungarian stock markets are covariance stationary. Using the Pagan – Schwert (1990) and Loretan – Phillips (1994) testing procedures, we show that contrary to the widely accepted assumption of covariance stationarity, the stock returns in Central and Eastern European (CEE) stock markets do not appear to be covariance stationary. Our results further suggest that the occurrence of unconditional volatility shifts appears to be synchronized across stocks.
    Keywords: covariance stationarity; unconditional volatility; volatility regimes; CEE stock markets
    JEL: C10 G15 G10
    Date: 2012–12–26
  6. By: Baranov, Igor N.
    Abstract: In this paper we examine determinants of the quality of secondary education for making informed policy decisions at the levels of student / family, school, country's education system institutions and macroeconomic indicators. The quality of education is estimated by the outcomes of the latest round of PISA from 2009 on mathematics and science skills of 15-year old students from 67 countries. After regression analysis for the pool of countries, we estimate the same determinants for Russia in order to reveal in what way the Russian secondary education system is different from other countries, with a special attention paid to possible explanation of a surprisingly different performance of Russian students on TIMSS and PISA tests. We conclude with the discussion of the limitations of analysis based on international tests and possible policy issues related to the factors of quality of secondary education in Russia.
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Böing, Philipp; Müller, Elisabeth
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between increasing Chinese high-tech exports and the technological capabilities of Chinese companies. China s recent innovation policy provides substantial incentives for companies to pursue technological upgrading and internationalization strategies. For our analysis, we extend models of New New Trade Theory to include the aspect of the technological capabilities of companies. We use the share of international patent applications as a proxy for exports and find that companies with higher total factor productivity and more valuable technology, as measured with citations received, are more likely to go international. Considering the implications of transport cost, we find that companies located in China s coastal region are more likely to export. We do not find evidence that the inclination to export is dominated by policy considerations. --
    JEL: F23 O34 O31
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Muravyev, Alexander
    Abstract: In this paper we attempt to classify Russian journals in economics and related disciplines for their scientific significance. We show that currently used criteria, such as a journal’s presence in the Higher Attestation Committee’s list of journals and the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) impact factor, are not very useful for assessing the academic quality of journals. Based on detailed data, including complete reference lists for 2010-2011, we find significant differentiation of Russian journals, including among those located at the top of the RSCI list. We identify two groups of Russian journals, tentatively called category A and B journals, that can be regarded as most important from the viewpoint of their contribution to the economic science. Executive summary is available at p. 52.
    Keywords: journal rankings; economics journals; Russia
    JEL: A12 A14
    Date: 2012–12–27
  9. By: Shirokova, G. V.; Storchevoy, M. A.
    Abstract: The paper is devoted to the influence of the social networks on entrance to foreign markets of Russian entrepreneurial firms. Although the majority of researchers assume that social networks play a key role in the process of internationalization of small and medium enterprises, the authors made an alternative claim questioning that influence. For answering the research questions the case method was used. On the basis of analysis of three cases of Russian entrepreneurial firms we found that social networks do play a much less important role in the internationalization process than it is usually assumed in the literature. The most important factors in expanding inter-national business networks are honest business practices that establish trust and commitment in the relationships of international business partners.
    Keywords: social networks, international entrepreneurship, Russia, case study,
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Xiao, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Jia-Hua; Liao, Shuang-Hong
    Abstract: Abstract: Nowadays, industry transfer from the coastal areas to the central region and the west areas has become an essential measure for our national adjusting of industrial layout. Because the central region has a superior location advantage of undertaking east and opening west, it becomes key areas for undertaking industries.Therefore, whether the economic carrying capacity of the central region can adapt to this large-scale industrial transfer will be the key to seize the opportunity. According to the experience of international industrial transfer, large-scale industrial transfer is bound to bring about inevitably rapid increase in employment, so the article tries to use the three industrial employment data of the three central region provinces (Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan) and the three coastal provinces (Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang) from 1978 to 2010, and then constructs the ARIMA model to forecast the employment of three industries from 2011 to 2015. Through comparatively analyzing prediction of employment changes of the central and the coastal provinces in the next few years, it will resolve some problems such as the economic carrying capacity of the central region undertaking the coastal industrial transfer, and three conclusions have been pointed out: 1) taking the coastal economic carrying capacity as a benchmark, the economic carrying capacity of the central region has not been saturated; 2)viewing the prediction of employment changes of the coastal and central region, the coastal industrial transfer has not formed in scale trend in the next few years; 3)from the terms of the changes of the future growth of the three industries, the undeveloped secondary industry is the bottleneck factor in restricting the improvement of economic carrying capacity for undertaking the coastal industrial transfer, and the low proportion of the third industry in the coastal areas is the viscosity factor in restricting the transfer of industries to the central region.
    Keywords: the central region; industry transfer; economic carrying capability; ARIMA model
    JEL: L0 J6 C3 J1 J0
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Serova, Liudmila S.
    Abstract: Micro-enterprises in Russia exist for a long time, but have acquired an official status only in 2008. What is the difference between micro- companies and economic operators of other types, what are their demographic characteristics - these research questions are the subject of this article. Executive summary is available at pp. 29 (in English).
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Výrost, Tomáš
    Abstract: The stock markets in the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary (CEE3) are studied in the context of stock market networks. A total of 17 shares are followed during the period of 1998 – 2012. The daily returns are used for calculation of rolling correlations of various window lengths. The resulting correlation matrices are then used to construct network models. Minimum spanning trees (MST) are used as a form of abstraction in the graph structure, and their evolution is studied over time. The main objective of the paper is to test whether the individual assets cluster in the MSTs by the country to which they belong or whether the origin is of lesser importance, leading to cross-country links within the MSTs. The latter might hint at increasing integration within CEE3 stock markets. We find that at the beginning of the series, the MSTs exhibited very strong country clustering, which changed in the later 2000s. The country effects do not seem to be synchronized between all markets.
    Keywords: stock market networks; minimum spanning trees; stock market integration
    JEL: L14 G1
    Date: 2012–12–29
  13. By: Shirokova, G.V.; Knatko, D.M.; Vega, G.
    Abstract: Demand by growing ownerrun SMEs for specialized management knowledge is resolved primarily through the separation of ownership and control, using top management labor market and agency contracts. Under certain environmental institutional conditions, owners of Russian SMEs face difficulties separating ownership and control. Using a dataset of 500 companies from fast growing industries in St. Petersburg and Moscow, this study analyzes how various perceived characteristics of the institutional environment influence the probability of separation of ownership and control. Executive summary is available at pp. 27.
    Keywords: emerging markets, separation of the ownership and control, management succession, SMEs, Russia,
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Kazantsev, A K.
    Abstract: The report presents results of research on the state of the educational, scientific and economic activities of the new cluster of Russian entrepreneurial type universities – national research universities (NRU). The research studied the national practice and international experience of the analysis and rankings of university complexes. Recommendations on the modalities of the system, indicators system and comparative analysis of the NRU were developed. The result of an analytical study of the NRU development programs implementation is presented. As an empirical data normative documents regulating RNUs activity and results of the special survey were used. The study was conducted as a part of a research project which involved scientists from GSOM, MSU М. Lomonosov and Center for Science Research and Statistics Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation
    Keywords: universities, National Research University, entrepreneurial university, university rankings, university assessment indicators,
    Date: 2012
  15. By: Hrvoje Mirosevic (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the contemporary production of development documents and how they relate to development management in the Republic of Croatia. Since the early nineties some 150 development documents were produced, but very few of them were implemented. Therefore, a framework for the analysis of development documents is established: required technical criterion for implementation which consists of four independent conditions. The goal is to show how many development documents that have been produced are actually suitable for implementation. Most of them are incomplete, lacking crucial parts such as sources of financing and cost estimates. However, there are noticeable improvements in development documents production. Change came about with the process of European integration which has influenced both the production of development documents and their implementation. Moreover, visible progress has been made since 2005 when the Government prescribed the standard methodology for the evaluation of financial/fiscal impact of development documents. Progress became even more evident with the Budget Act of 2008. Strategic planning became a method of connecting measures prescribed by development documents to the sources of financing in state budget. However, it is still too early to provide final assessment of the overall development management in Croatia.
    Keywords: development documents, development management, strategic planning, Croatia
    JEL: O21 P41
    Date: 2012–12
  16. By: Zavyalova, E. K.; Kosheleva, S. V.
    Abstract: The paper presents the results of a comparative study of human resource management peculiarities in two groups of knowledge-intensive firms: those working in IT field and in advertising/ PR field. 100 Russian medium size enterprises were the object of research. The questionnaire made on the basis of the European quality standard "Investors in People" was the research tool. The differences in HR practices aimed at personnel development and relevant to various human resource strategies have been proven to a statistically-valid degree. IT companies tend to realize the high performance strategy, whereas advertising and PR companies prefer the high involvement strategy.
    Keywords: knowledge-intensive firms, HR strategies, HRD technologies,
    Date: 2012

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