nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2010‒09‒11
23 papers chosen by
J. David Brown
Heriot-Watt University

  1. Chinese firms entering China's low-income market: Gaining competitive advantage by partnering governments By Kostka, Genia; Zhou, Jianghua
  2. Impacts of Restructurings on Manufacturing Productive Efficiency: Evidence from China By Gao, Song
  3. International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China By Sun, Peng; Heshmati, Almas
  4. On the determinants of banking efficiency in four new European Union Member States: the impact of structural reforms By Mamatzakis, Emmanuel; Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, Anastasia; Staikuras, Christos
  5. Fragmentation of China’s landscape by roads and urban areas By Li, Taian; Shilling, Fraser; Thorne, James H.; Li, Fengmin; Schott, Heidi; Boynton, Ryan; Berry, Alison M
  6. Health Outcomes and Socio-Economic Status among the Elderly in China: Evidence from the CHARLS Pilot By Strauss, John; Lei, Xiaoyan; Park, Albert; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P.; Yang, Zhe; Zhao, Yaohui
  7. Can Educational Expansion Improve Income Inequality in China? Evidences from the CHNS 1997 and 2006 Data By Ning, Guangjie
  8. Trading Places: China and the US in the International System By Baum, Richard; Naughton, Barry
  9. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of the Economic Headliners – Exporters and Foreign-Owned Firms – in China By Natalia Trofimenko
  10. Privatization, Soft Budget Constraint, and Social Burdens: A Random-Effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis on Chinese Manufacturing Technical Efficiency By Gao, Song
  11. Regional Inflation in China By Nagayasu, Jun
  12. Which Households Use Banks? Evidence from the Transition Economies By Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.
  13. Estimating the Effect of the One-Child Policy on Sex Ratio Imbalance in China: Identification Based on the Difference-in-Differences By Li, Hongbin; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Junsen
  14. Words or deeds - what matters? Experience of recentralization in Russian security agencies By Libman, Alexander
  15. Measuring Business Ownership Across Countries and Over Time: Extending the COMPENDIA Data Base By André van Stel; Chantal Hartog; J. Cieslik Cieslik
  16. The Diversity and Dynamics of Industrial Organisation: Transformation of Local Assemblers in the Vietnamese Motorcycle Industry By Fujita, Mai
  17. Drivers of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries: Evidence from a FAVAR analysis By Christian Dreger; Jarko Fidrmuc
  18. Foreign banks and financial stability in emerging markets: Evidence from the global financial crisis By Vogel, Ursula; Winkler, Adalbert
  19. Panel Data Evidence on Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-Level Measures of Backward and Forward Linkages By Pavel Vacek
  20. Dynamics of health insurance ownership in Vietnam, 2004 – 06 By Trong-Ha Nguyen; Suiwah Leung
  21. Anti-corruption strategies in some South-Eastern European states.An empirical study on the impact of the government performance By Matei, Ani; Matei, Lucica
  22. Why Do Firms Evade Taxes? The Role of Information Sharing and Financial Sector Outreach By Beck, T.H.L.; Lin, C.; Ma, Y.
  23. Productivity Gains From Exporting: Do Export Destinations Matter? By Pavel Vacek

  1. By: Kostka, Genia; Zhou, Jianghua
    Abstract: This paper investigates poverty alleviation efforts in China and the nature of governmententerprise partnerships there. We argue that firms partnering central and local governments can be an effective strategy to overcome resource-based obstacles in low-income markets. In China, local and central governments are owners of rare and valuable resources, thus offering better access to finance, infrastructure, technical and planning expertise, advocacy through government marketing and distribution channels, and links to other stakeholders. The findings are based on 16 case studies of firms entering the low-income market in China, of which two cases in the agricultural and telecommunication sector are studied in depth. --
    Keywords: Partnerships,government,poverty alleviation,China,base of the pyramid
    JEL: M19 O18 R51 R59
    Date: 2010
  2. By: Gao, Song
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of privatization and non-ownership-change reforms on firms’ productivity in China. As one of the most prominent empirical challenges in China privatization studies, endogeneity problems are addressed with a first-difference instrumental variable GMM estimation. We find that privatization does not improve firms’ productivity immediately. Instead, its effects become significantly positive in the year after conversion. In addition, partial privatization fails to lead to improved efficiency whereas insider privatization boosts firms’ productivity shortly after the first year of privatization but the effects quickly fade after two years of privatization. Lastly, all non-ownership-change reforms, except leasing, are proved to be ineffective even when issues like social burdens, worker redundancy, management incentives and soft-budget constraint are tackled before the restructuring.
    Keywords: privatization; soft budget constraint; transition economies; Chinese economy
    JEL: L25 P31 C33
    Date: 2010–06
  3. By: Sun, Peng (affiliation not available); Heshmati, Almas (Korea University)
    Abstract: International trade, as a major factor of openness, has made an increasingly significant contribution to economic growth. Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market. This research discusses the role of international trade in China's economic growth. It starts with a review of conceptions as well as the evolution of China's international trade regime and the policy that China has taken in favor of trade sectors. In addition, China's international trade performance is analyzed extensively. This research then evaluates the effects of international trade on China's economic growth through examining improvement in productivity. Both econometric and non-parametric approaches are applied based on a 6-year balanced panel data of 31 provinces of China from 2002 to 2007. For the econometric approach, a stochastic frontier production function is estimated and province specific determinants of inefficiency in trade identified. For the non-parametric approach, the Divisia index of each province/region is calculated to be used as the benchmark. The study demonstrates that increasing participation in the global trade helps China reap the static and dynamic benefits, stimulating rapid national economic growth. Both international trade volume and trade structure towards high-tech exports result in positive effects on China's regional productivity. The eastern region of China has been developing most rapidly while the central and western provinces have been lagging behind in terms of both economic growth and participation in international trade. Policy implications are drawn from the empirical results accordingly.
    Keywords: international trade, economic growth, China, panel data, stochastic frontier
    JEL: C23 D24 F10 O24 R58
    Date: 2010–08
  4. By: Mamatzakis, Emmanuel; Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, Anastasia; Staikuras, Christos
    Abstract: We employ the stochastic frontier methodology and estimate alternative profit efficiency in the banking industry of four new European Union Member States, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic, over the period 1999-2003. Our results show that structural reforms in the banking industry improve performance in terms of higher efficiency, whereas the institutional development of the non-bank financial sector hinders banks’ profit efficiency.
    Keywords: structural reforms; alternative profit inefficiency; new EU countries
    JEL: L25 D24 G21
    Date: 2010–08–19
  5. By: Li, Taian; Shilling, Fraser; Thorne, James H.; Li, Fengmin; Schott, Heidi; Boynton, Ryan; Berry, Alison M
    Abstract: China’s major paved road-ways (national roads, provincial roads, and county roads), railways and urban development are rapidly expanding. A likely consequence of this fast-paced growth is landscape fragmentation and disruption of ecological flows. In order to provide ecological information to infrastructure planners and environmental managers for use in landscape conservation, land-division from development must be measured. We used the effective- mesh-size (Meff) method to provide the first evaluation of the degree of landscape division in China, caused by paved roads, railways, and urban areas. Using Meff, we found that fragmentation by major transportation systems and urban areas in China varied widely, from the least-impacted west to the most impacted south and east of China. Almost all eastern provinces and counties, especially areas near big cities, have high levels of fragmentation. Several eastern-Chinese provinces and biogeographic regions have among the most severe landscape fragmentation in the world, while others are comparable to the leastdeveloped areas of Europe and California. Threatened plant hotspots and areas with high mammal species diversity occurred in both highly fragmented and less fragmented areas, though future road development threatens already moderately divided landscapes. To conserve threatened biodiversity and landscapes, we recommend that national and regional planners in China consider existing land division before making decisions about further road development and improvement.
    Keywords: UCD-ITS-RP-10-14
    Date: 2010–02–01
  6. By: Strauss, John (University of Southern California); Lei, Xiaoyan (Peking University); Park, Albert (University of Oxford); Shen, Yan (Peking University); Smith, James P. (RAND); Yang, Zhe (Peking University); Zhao, Yaohui (Peking University)
    Abstract: We are concerned in this paper with measuring health outcomes among the elderly in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces, China, and examining the relationships between different dimensions of health status and measures of socio-economic status (SES). We use the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) pilot data to document health conditions among the elderly in Gansu and Zhejiang provinces, where the survey was fielded. We use a very rich set of health indicators that include both self-reported measures and biomarkers. We also examine correlations between these health outcomes and two important indicators of socioeconomic status (SES): education and log of per capita expenditure (log pce), our preferred measure of household resources. While there exists a very large literature that examines the relationships between SES and health measures, little has been done on Chinese data to see whether correlations reported in many other countries are replicated in China, particularly so for the aged. In general education tends to be positively correlated with better health outcomes, as it is in other countries. However, unmeasured community influences turn out to be highly important, much more so than one usually finds in other countries. While it is not yet clear which aspects of communities matter and why they matter, we set up an agenda for future research on this topic. We also find a large degree of under-diagnosis of hypertension, a major health problems that afflicts the aged. This implies that the current health system is not well prepared to address the rapid aging of the Chinese population, at least not in Gansu and Zhejiang.
    Keywords: health, China
    JEL: I10
    Date: 2010–08
  7. By: Ning, Guangjie (Nankai University)
    Abstract: Rapid education expansion and rising income inequality are two striking phenomena occurring in China during the transitional period. Using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data collected in 1997 and 2006, this paper studies how education affects individual earnings during the transitional process. We find that education accounts for only a small fraction of personal earnings and income gap between different groups. We analyze the underlying mechanism of the impact of education on earnings. More educated people tend to enter state-owned sectors, have a low probability of changing jobs in the labor market and work less time; all of these will have a pronounced impact on earning and income inequality. Quantile regression analysis shows that the low-income group's education return rate is lower, which helps little in narrowing income gap. We decompose the earning gap into four factors: population effect, price effect, labor choice effect and unobservable effect. In explaining the earning gap in China, the price effect is more important than the population effect. The labor choice effect is also significant. We conclude that increasing educational expenditure with no complementary measures such as reforming the education system and establishing a competitive labor market helps less in reducing income inequality.
    Keywords: education expansion, income gap, rate of return to education, labor market
    JEL: I20 J31 O15
    Date: 2010–08
  8. By: Baum, Richard; Naughton, Barry
    Abstract: Richard Baum does not foresee China and the US “trading places†in the near future but does not rule out this scenario in twenty to thirty years. He evaluates China’s role in the international system. China’s strong economic growth continues, though probably slowing, and it has become powerful regional actor. Yet, China also faces problems with the United States and other sovereign nations in Asia as well as its membership in WTO, World Bank and IMF. Baum considers these and other tensions for China on the international front. He includes in his discussion the different positions of various China scholars take on these developments. Barry Naughton argues that China has become the world’s Number Two superpower following three decades of record economic growth. It is unlikely that China wants to challenge US primacy in the near term but rather seeks to improve and build upon its regional standing. The Communist Party is in the process of recalibrating its relations with the US and the world but also has domestic challenges including consolidating its power, the slowing migration from rural to urban areas and the demographic transformation from a young to a more mature society. Professor Naughton goes on suggest what this portends for the Chinese economy and society.
    Date: 2010–03–01
  9. By: Natalia Trofimenko
    Abstract: Foreign-owned firms are frequently viewed as an important source of new capital, access to world markets and employment generation and there exist numerous studies on the determinants of FDI flows and the role of incentives designed to attract FDI. Similarly important for economic growth are exporters, yet the factors that play a role in their location decisions have not been identified. Using a data set of 1,409 firms in China who report, among other things, why they have chosen a particular location, we find that the perceived importance of various site attributes differs considerably for those two types of firms: foreign-owned firms are attracted by the local market size, supply of skilled workers, and the quality of (telecommunications!) infrastructure; future exporters are driven by low rents, and fewer regulatory requirements and taxes; both types of firms care about the availability of government services
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, exporters, determinants of location, Chinese cities
    JEL: R3 R11 F21 L10
    Date: 2010–08
  10. By: Gao, Song
    Abstract: Traditional panel stochastic frontier studies on privatization of Chinese State-owned firms face a major challenge, namely, the endogeneity problem. The endogeneity problem is present because decision-making process of privatization in China is very likely influenced by some unobserved characteristics of a firm. In particular, better-performing SOEs are more likely to be chosen for privatization because the local governments may have incentives to attract private investors or to retain momentum for future reform. To deal with this challenge, this paper proposes a two-step stochastic frontier model. The first step addresses the endogeneity issue by estimating the probability of privatization with a random effects probit model. The second step estimation investigates the causes of Chinese manufacturing’s inefficiency with a random-effects stochastic frontier model. The estimation results suggest that privatization, hardening budget constraint and reducing firms’ social obligations have significantly contributed to the improvements of firms’ efficiency. However, no evidence is found that more autonomy for managers and lower debt asset ratio may help improve firms’ efficiency.
    Keywords: Panel data; random effects; technical efficiency; stochastic frontier; privatization; soft-budget constraint; managerial incentives; social burdens
    JEL: D2 O53 C3 P31
    Date: 2010–03
  11. By: Nagayasu, Jun
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines developments in price and inflation in China from 1991 to 2005. Unlike most previous studies, their determinants were investigated in the panel data context, and our findings are as follows. First, using the panel cointegration method, we confirm a long-run relationship between price, money and output. Secondly, we provide evidence that inflation can be explained by economic fundamentals such as money, credits, productivity, and exchange rate growth. Furthermore, while an increased concern about regional discrepancies in recent years, this relationship is more sensitive to the sample period than to the region type. Notably, money does not seem to be closely associated with inflation over recent years.
    Keywords: China; inflation; panel data; panel cointegration
    JEL: E31 E50 R11
    Date: 2009–12
  12. By: Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: This paper uses survey data for 29,000 households from 29 transition economies to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, bank ownership structure and the development of the financial infrastructure. At the household level we find that the holding of a bank account or bank card increases with income, wealth and education in most countries and also find evidence for an urban-rural gap, as well as for a role of religion and social integration. Our results show that foreign bank ownership is associated with more bank accounts among high-wealth, high-income, and educated households. State ownership, on the other hand, does not induce financial inclusion of rural and poorer households. We find that higher deposit insurance coverage, better payment systems and creditor protection encourage the holding of bank accounts in particular by high-income and high-wealth households. All in all, our findings shed doubt on the ability of policy levers to broaden the financial system to disadvantaged groups.
    Keywords: Access to finance;Bank-ownership;Deposit insurance;Payment system;Creditor protection.
    JEL: G2 G18 O16 P34
    Date: 2010
  13. By: Li, Hongbin (Tsinghua University); Yi, Junjian (Chinese University of Hong Kong); Zhang, Junsen (Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: In China, the male-biased sex ratio has increased significantly. Because the one-child policy only applied to the Han Chinese but not to minorities, this unique affirmative policy allows us to identify the causal effect of the one-child policy on the increase in sex ratios by a difference-in-differences (DD) estimator. Using the 1990 census, we find that the strict enforcement of the one-child policy has led to 4.4 extra boys per 100 girls in the 1980s, accounting for about 94% of the total increase in sex ratios during this period. The robust tests indicate that the estimated policy effect is not likely confounded by other omitted policy shocks or socioeconomic changes. Moreover, we conduct the DD estimation using both the 2000 census and the 2005 mini-census. Our estimates suggest that the one-child policy has resulted in about 7.0 extra boys per 100 girls for the 1991-2005 birth cohort. The effect of the one-child policy accounts for about 57% and 54% of the total increases in sex ratios for the 1990s and the 2001-2005 birth cohorts, respectively.
    Keywords: one-child policy, sex ratio imbalance, difference-in-differences estimator
    JEL: J13 J15 J18 O10
    Date: 2010–08
  14. By: Libman, Alexander
    Abstract: The paper discusses the relative importance of the 'real' political actions versus the changes of symbolic nature in the bargaining over devolution, studying the case of personnel decentralization in security agencies in Russia in 2000-2007. While in the 1990s under Boris Yeltsin regional branches of federal ministries in Russia were mostly captured by regional governors, allowing them to pass acts directly contradicting federal law, in 2000s the administration of Vladimir Putin gradually replaced the heads of regional branches by new bureaucrats, supposedly without any connections to the region. The results differ for different security agencies; however, the paper finds, surprisingly, that in several cases the appointment decisions were robustly influenced rather by symbolic gestures made by regional governments in the earlier bargaining process than by the actual devolution policies of the regions. --
    Keywords: Devolution,bargaining,transition economies
    JEL: D78 H77 P26
    Date: 2010
  15. By: André van Stel; Chantal Hartog; J. Cieslik Cieslik
    Abstract: Since several years EIM Business and Policy Research maintains a data base on business ownership rates across OECD countries, called COMPENDIA (COMParative ENtrepreneurship Data for International Analysis). EIM harmonizes raw numbers of business owners (self-employed), as published in the OECD Labour Force Statistics, towards a uniform definition. We define the business ownership rate as the number of owner-managers of unincorporated and incorporated businesses, as a fraction of the total labour force. Until recently, data in COMPENDIA were published for a group of 23 OECD countries, starting from 1972 onwards. However, in the most recent version of the data base time series for seven additional countries have been introduced for the first time, so that the COMPENDIA data base now covers 30 OECD countries. The current paper makes four contributions. First, we provide an update of the methodology used to harmonize business ownership rates across countries. In doing so, as a second contribution, we provide two extended country cases (Poland and the United States) which illustrate the many methodological pitfalls that have to be dealt with when measuring the number of business owners. Third, we present business ownership time series for 30 OECD countries including the new countries in our data base: Czech Republic, Hungary, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Slovak Republic, and Turkey. Fourth and finally, we pay considerable attention to the sizable differences in the level and development of business ownership since 1989 in four Central and East European transition economies in our data base: Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovak Republic.  
    Date: 2010–08–31
  16. By: Fujita, Mai
    Abstract: This paper focuses on an emerging arm's-length form of industrial organisation in the motorcycle industry, which had traditionally been characterised by tightly integrated form of organisation. By engaging in how this new form of organisation that emerged in China was transferred to Vietnam and evolved in the Vietnamese context, this paper seeks to illustrate how the rise of local firms in developing countries is driving the increased diversity and dynamics of industrial organisation in an industry that had previously been dominated by TNCs from developed countries.
    Keywords: Motorcycles, industrial organisation, motorcycle industry
    JEL: L10 L22 L62
    Date: 2010–03
  17. By: Christian Dreger; Jarko Fidrmuc (Osteuropa-Institut, Regensburg (Institut for East European Studies))
    Abstract: We investigate the likely sources of exchange rate dynamics in selected CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) over the last dec-ade (1999-2010). Evidence is based on country VARs augmented by a regional com-mon factor structure (FAVAR model). The models include nominal exchange rates, the common factor of exchange rates in the CIS countries, and international drivers such as global trade, share prices, and oil price. Global, regional and idiosyncratic shocks are identified in a standard Cholesky fashion. Their relevance for exchange rates is ex-plored by a decomposition of the variance of forecast errors. The impact of global shocks to in the developments of exchange rates has increased, in particular, if financial shocks are considered. Because of the financial crisis, regional shocks have become more important at the expense of global shocks.
    Keywords: Exchange rates, CIS countries, financial crisis, FAVAR models
    JEL: F31 C22 G15
    Date: 2010–08
  18. By: Vogel, Ursula; Winkler, Adalbert
    Abstract: Foreign banks have increased their market share in many emerging markets since the mid-1990s. We examine whether this contributed to financial stability in the respective host countries in the global financial crisis. Our results suggest that the stabilizing impact of foreign banks was limited to the cross-border component of financial globalization and to two regions: Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. Only in the latter region was this translated into more stable credit growth. Thus hopes that a stronger presence of foreign banks might help host countries in isolating domestic credit from international shocks did not materialize in the current crisis. --
    Keywords: Foreign banks,cross-border lending,bank credit,financial crisis
    JEL: E44 F36 G21
    Date: 2010
  19. By: Pavel Vacek (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: I examine whether foreign direct investment increases the productivity of manufacturing firms. I test the proposition that local firms benefit from supplying multinational firms (spillovers through backward linkages) and by purchasing inputs from multinationals (spillovers through forward linkages). The existing literature on productivity spillovers has relied on industry-level proxies for spillovers. I identify spillovers directly at the firm level. I have conducted field work in the Czech manufacturing sector and built a unique data set that enabled me to construct firm-level measures of backward and forward linkages. My results provide strong support for the existence of productivity spillovers through backward linkages.
    Keywords: FDI, spillovers, forward–backward linkages
    JEL: F23
    Date: 2010–08
  20. By: Trong-Ha Nguyen; Suiwah Leung
    Abstract: Vietnam is undertaking health financing reform in an attempt to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2014. Changes in health insurance policies have doubled the overall coverage between 2004 and 2006. However, close examination of Vietnam Living Standard Surveys during this period reveals that about one fifth of the insured in 2004 dropped out of the health insurance system by 2006. This paper uses longitudinal data from VHLSS 2004 and 2006 to investigate the characteristics of those who joined and those who left the health insurance system. We model the static and dynamic health insurance choices allowing for heterogeneity of choices. The results from both static and dynamic models highlight the importance of income and education in determining the movement in or out of a particular scheme. The results from the static models of health insurance determinants show significant adverse selection in the current health insurance system where individuals with bad health are more likely to be insured. The findings from the dynamic models of health insurance ownership also suggest that the current health insurance system entails significant adverse selection where people with worse health are more likely to join or stay in and less likely to move out of the system. Some policy implications to increase coverage and to maintain financial sustainability of the health insurance system are drawn.
    Keywords: health insurance, adverse selection, Vietnam
    JEL: I11 D12 O12
    Date: 2010–08
  21. By: Matei, Ani; Matei, Lucica
    Abstract: The preoccupations about conceiving and promoting efficient anti-corruption strategies exist in most states, especially in the developing countries. The opportunity of such strategies derives from the direct link, demonstrated theoretically and empirically, between the effects of the anti-corruption strategies and government performance, translated both in the economic and social results and living standard, welfare etc. In the last decades, the transnational actors – UN, World Bank, OECD, EU etc. - have affirmed as promoters of own anti-corruption strategies, directing the states’ efforts, conferring adequate levels of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency or sustainability. The South-Eastern European states incorporate own anti-corruption strategies in the framework of general strategies, aiming the government reform in the context of the European integration process. Strengthening the public integrity, reducing corruption, developing a genuine climate of economic freedom become important objectives concerning the impact on government performance. The paper incorporates briefly the main characteristics of anti-corruption strategies, developed by transnational actors and it aims to shape theoretical and empirical frameworks for the impact of anti-corruption strategies. The focus on some South-Eastern European states has a demonstrative character, as the presented analyses may be extended to various geo-political areas.
    Keywords: anti-corruption strategies; assessment; impact; government performance.
    JEL: D73 D63 G18
    Date: 2010–08–20
  22. By: Beck, T.H.L.; Lin, C.; Ma, Y. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Informality is a wide-spread phenomenon across the globe. We show that firms in countries with better information sharing systems and greater financial sector outreach evade taxes to a lesser degree, an effect that is stronger for smaller firms, firms in smaller cities and towns, and firms in industries relying more on external financing, with higher liquidity needs and with greater growth potential. However, it is variation in firm size that dominates firm variation in location and industry variation in explaining cross-firm and cross-country variation in tax evasion. This effect is robust to controlling for an array of other measures of the financial and institutional environment firms face. The effect is also robust to controlling for fixed firm effects in a smaller panel dataset of Central and Eastern European countries many of which introduced credit registries or upgraded them in the early 2000s.
    Keywords: Formal and informal sector;tax evasion;financial sector development
    JEL: E26 G2 H26 O17
    Date: 2010
  23. By: Pavel Vacek (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: In this paper, I have examined whether exporters benefit by exporting more, and also whether the productivity benefits from exporting more are heterogeneous across export destinations. I have conducted my own data collection field work and built a unique firm-level panel database of Czech manufacturing firms that includes data on the destinations of exports. I have found that firms do benefit from exporting more. However, my results also show that it is necessary to take into account export markets' heterogeneity. I have found that it is only exporting more to developed countries that brings productivity gains.
    Keywords: exporting, productivity, spillovers
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2010–08

This nep-tra issue is ©2010 by J. David Brown. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.