nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2005‒06‒27
six papers chosen by
Tono Sanchez
Universitat de Valencia

  1. Fertility determinants in modern Russia By Boykov Andrey; Roshchina Yana
  2. Estimation of environmental efficiencies of economies and shadow prices of pollutants in countries in transition By Salnykov Mykhaylo; Zelenyuk Valentin
  3. State Weakness in Eastern Europe: concept and causes By Verena Fritz
  4. EU Conditionality and Minority Rights: Translating the Copenhagen Criterion into Policy By Gwendolyn Sasse
  5. Media Pluralism: European Regulatory Policies and the Case of Central Europe By Beata Klimkiewicz
  6. The Effect of Partial Information Sharing in a Two-Level Supply Chain By Huy Chhaing; Eiji Takeda

  1. By: Boykov Andrey; Roshchina Yana
    Abstract: Economic models of fertile behavior are the theoretical background of this research. For empirical models estimates we use RLMS data (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) for 1994–2001. These models are estimated for following dependent variables: probability of childbearing, probability of pregnancy break (within the next year after polling), the desire to have a child in future. Many economic variables influence family decision-making on a childbearing, however nevertheless major factors which determine reproductive behavior, remain demographic (age and quantity of children ever born) and cultural. Values and cultural factors remain more influencing propensity to parenthood, than economic. The importance of nationality, religiousness, satisfaction by financial position, and also frequencies of alcohol consuming is high. Distinctions between regions are essential, between cities and countryside too. Birth rate is higher in poorer regions, with lower level of female unemployment. Many economic factors which theoretically should influence decision-making on a birth of a child(employment, profession, education, incomes of women and their spouses, conditions of life), appeared insignificant or significant only in models for some samples of women.
    Keywords: Russia, fertile behavior, fertility, propensity to parenthood
    JEL: J13
    Date: 2005–06–22
  2. By: Salnykov Mykhaylo; Zelenyuk Valentin
    Abstract: Various measures of technical efficiency, such as output distance function, input distance function and directional distance function can be used as sustainability indicators in the case when some outputs produced are undesirable, such as pollution. Shadow prices of environmental pollution asses short run perspectives of increase in pollution when desirable output is increased and may serve as a reference value for environmental taxes and prices for international emission trade. We make an attempt to estimate environmental efficiencies of countries (based on the output distance function with general directional vector) as well as shadow prices for selected pollutants (CO2, SO2 and NOx). Two alternative estimation approaches are employed: parametric (Translog specification) and nonparametric (DEA). Statistical characteristics of the obtained parametric estimates are assessed using the smooth homogeneous bootstrap technique. Our results indicate that, on average, countries value pollutants proportionally to their direct impact on human health (i.e. the most hazardous pollutants have the highest shadow prices). We find that in general both rich and poor countries can be fully environmentally efficient, while most of the countries in transition (CITs) turned out to be inefficient. Our findings imply that under emission permit trade agreements CITs will generally be permit sellers. By selling permits they will hamper their future ability of economic growth, thus some restrictions (which we propose) must be made in such agreements to limit their unsustainability for CITs. Our estimates show that currently global wealth and pollution are allocated inefficiently. We determine that different estimation techniques provide with statistically different estimates. The work provides with illustrative examples of using the estimates to draw forecasts on environmental effect of economic growth; to determine price range on international pollution permit markets and to estimate economically justified rates of environmental taxation. Finally, we provide policy implications and outline potential directions for the future studies in the field.
    Keywords: Russia, pollution, environmental efficiency, shadow prices, bootstrap, countries in transition, parametric and nonparametric techniques, bootstrap
    JEL: Q56 H23 C67 D24 C15
    Date: 2005–06–22
  3. By: Verena Fritz
    Keywords: governance; transition processes; post-Communism
    Date: 2004–12–15
  4. By: Gwendolyn Sasse
    Keywords: Hungary; Slovakia; Romania; Copenhagen criteria; minorities
    Date: 2005–03–15
  5. By: Beata Klimkiewicz
    Keywords: media; Poland; Czech Republic; Slovakia; regulatory politics
    Date: 2005–05–15
  6. By: Huy Chhaing (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Eiji Takeda (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: In many supply chains, the variance of orders may be considerably larger than that of sales, and this distortion tends to increase as one moves up a supply chain, this is known as "Bullwhip Effect". The Bullwhip phenomenon has recognized in many diverse markets. Procter & Gamble found that the diaper orders issued by the distributors have a degree of variability that cannot be explained by consumer demand fluctuations (Lee, Padamanabhan and Wang 1997a). Lee, Padamanabhan and Wang (1997a, b) developed a framework for explaining this phenomenon. Lee, So, and Tang (2000) showed that, within the context of a two-level supply chain consisting of single manufacturer and single retailer with AR(1) end demand, the manufacturer would benefit when the retailer shared its demand information. This paper considers the eRect of partial information sharing, within the framework of Lee, So and Tang, in one manufacturer and n retailers model, focusing on the variance of the manufacturer's "demand" (the retailers' order quantity).
    Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Information Sharing, Inventory
    JEL: C61 M11
    Date: 2004–02

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