nep-tra New Economics Papers
on Transition Economics
Issue of 2004‒12‒20
five papers chosen by
Toño Sanchez
Universidad de Valencia

  1. Legislating for Equality:The Implementation of the EU Equality Acquis in Central and Eastern Europe By Amanda Sloat
  2. Economic Growth and Cycles in Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia: A comparison with Spain, Austria and other EU countries, 1950-2002 By Guisan, Maria-Carmen; Aguayo, Eva; Carballas, David
  3. Structural reforms, macroeconomic policies and the future of Kazakhstan economy By Gilles Dufrenot; Alain Sand-Zantman
  4. China's New Regional Trade Agreements By Agata Antkiewicz; John Whalley
  5. Is China a Leviathan? By Zhu, Z.; Krug, B.

  1. By: Amanda Sloat
    Abstract: The most recent enlargement of the European Union, which incorporated post-communist countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), placed relatively little emphasis on the equal opportunities of men and women. However, acceding countries were required to implement Chapter 13 (‘Employment and social affairs’) of the acquis communautaire , which includes legislative provisions promoting gender equality in the workplace. This paper considers the extent to which the equality acquis has been transposed, implemented, and enforced in ten CEE countries. It begins by examining the pre-89 equality infrastructure, which provides a comparative basis for the paper’s substantive analysis of the implementation of the ten equality directives. In particular, it discusses the legal mechanisms used to implement the legislation, evaluates whether pre-89 provisions have been strengthened or weakened, and highlights remaining problems in harmonisation. Next, the paper evaluates awareness of the equality directives among women, employers and judges. It analyses the enforcement of these directives by labour inspectorates and ombudspersons, while also noting the limited case law. It then examines relations between CEE governments and both NGOs and trade unions, considering whether these bodies are promoting awareness and enforcement of the equality legislation. In conclusion, the paper argues that legislative harmonisation has legitimised women’s claim to genuine equality but has made only a marginal change in practice as women remain numerically weaker than men and hold less favourable positions in most areas.
    Keywords: Europeanization; implementation; post-Communism; transition processes; acquis communautaire; directives; harmonisation; gender policy; employment policy; EU-East-Central Europe; enlargement; law; political science; Czech Republic; Estonia; Hungary; Latvia; Lithuania; Poland; Romania; Slovakia; Slovenia
    Date: 2004–12–09
  2. By: Guisan, Maria-Carmen; Aguayo, Eva; Carballas, David
    Abstract: We present an international comparison of economic development of 5 Central European countries, with special reference to Poland and Hungary, with some European Union Countries for the period 1950-2002. We analyse different stages of their evolution: 1) In 1950-60 the evolution of production per inhabitant and rates of growth of this variable, in comparison with Spain, where very alike. 2) In 1960-75 the differences increased dramatically in favour of Spain. 3) In 1975-85 the differences diminished with a better performance of Hungary in comparison with Poland. 4) In 1985-91 the differences in the evolution of economic development increased again in favour of Spain. 5) Since 1991 to 2002 the evolution of these Central European countries generally improved and their rates of growth were more similar to those of Spain. We analyse the main factors that have explained the lower average rate of growth of production per inhabitant in Central Europe as a whole in comparison with Spain, Austria and other EU countries. We focus on human capital, manufacturing capacity, foreign trade and other relevant factors of production, mainly from a supply side approach. We also analyse the differences among Central European countries, outstanding the special case of Slovenia, country which has reached a position very similar to that of Spain in the level of income per inhabitant.
    Keywords: Growth, Development and Cycles in Central Europe
    JEL: C5 C51 O52 O57
    Date: 2004
  3. By: Gilles Dufrenot (ERUDITE, Université de Paris 12 and GREQAM, Marseille); Alain Sand-Zantman (GATE-CNRS, ENS-LSH, Université de Lyon 2 and OFCE, Paris)
    Date: 2004
  4. By: Agata Antkiewicz; John Whalley
    Abstract: This paper discusses the recent regional trade agreements that China has concluded rapidly following accession to the WTO in 2002. Agreements are in place with Hong Kong, Macao, ASEAN, Australia, and New Zealand, and are either in negotiation or under discussion with South Africa, Chile, India, and the Gulf Cooperation Council. These agreements differ sharply in form and substance, and involve process commitments to ongoing negotiation and cooperation on a wide range of issues. Differences relating to the regional agreements negotiated by the EU and the US are emphasized, as are later potential difficulties these agreements create in moving to an Asian trade bloc centred on them.
    JEL: F02 F10 O24
    Date: 2004–12
  5. By: Zhu, Z.; Krug, B. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: This paper offers a new data set and window to empirically test Leviathan theory in the sense of China???s transition economy. By combining time series and cross-section regression analysis and various variables used by previous empirical studies, we test the Leviathan hypothesis for vertical decentralization, horizontal fragmentation and intergovernmental collusion at national and provincial level, respectively. Our empirical results lend support to Leviathan hypothesis, especially, under the condition of absence of traditional democratic electoral constraint.
    Keywords: Public Choice;Leviathan;China;Transition Economy;
    Date: 2004–12–10

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