nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2018‒10‒08
eight papers chosen by
Fulvio Castellacci
Universitetet i Oslo

  1. Mobility of Highly Skilled Individuals and Local Innovation Activity By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Sanders, Mark
  2. Innovation Capital By Audretsch, David; Link, Albert
  3. Increasing Differences Between Firms: Market Power and the Macro-Economy By John Van Reenen
  4. Information communication technologies and environmental innovations in firms: joint adoptions and productivity effects By Davide Antonioli; Grazia Cecere; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  5. Globalization, Structural Change and Innovation in Emerging Economies: The Impact on Employment and Skills By Marco Vivarelli
  6. Patents For Evidence-Based Decision-Making And Smart Specialization By Bruno Brandao Fischer; Maxim Kotsemir; Dirk Meissner; Ekaterina Streltsova
  7. Green industrial path development in different types of regions By Grillitsch, Markus; Hansen, Teis
  8. The Regional Emergence of Innovative Start-ups: A Research Agenda By Michael Fritsch

  1. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Sanders, Mark
    Abstract: This paper studies the drivers of highly skilled migrants across space as well as their impact on local innovation activity. We focus on patent inventors, a specific typology of skilled and innovative individuals who are deeply involved in the production of innovation and are important vehicle of knowledge circulation. Employing patent data to track their moves, we use a gravity model to examine whether geographic, technological and cultural proximities between countries and country level factors and policies shape the flows of these talented individuals. As a comparison, in the same framework, we also analyze the flows of non-inventor migrants. Our evidence shows that proximity matters for migration. Gravity emerges everywhere; in the mobility of inventor and non-inventor migrant workers; the former, however, are less geographically restricted. Similarity in technological production structure between countries is the main driver of inventor moves - especially for inventors from the most innovative countries, whereas cultural proximity matters more for non-inventor migrants. Attractive country features are the quality of institutions and job opportunities at the destination as well as trade linkages between origin and destination country. Finally, the knowledge and skills that move with the inventors have an important positive impact on local innovation production.
    Keywords: inventor mobility, patents, migration, gravity, proximity
    JEL: J61 O31 O33 O52
    Date: 2018–09–07
  2. By: Audretsch, David (Indiana University); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we compare the relationship between a firm’s innovation capital and the likelihood that a firm will commercialize an invention. Our index of innovation capital is the product of the firm’s human capital, social capital, and reputational capital. We find from our empirical experiment, which uses Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) data, that innovation capital is a statistically more important entrepreneurial input to the innovation output of commercialization than any of its components.
    Keywords: innovation capital; human capital; social capital; reputational capital; entrepreneurship; commercialization;
    JEL: L31 O31 O38
    Date: 2018–09–21
  3. By: John Van Reenen
    Abstract: A rich understanding of macro-economic outcomes requires taking into account the large (and increasing) differences between firms. These differences stem in large part from heterogeneous productivity rooted in managerial and technological capabilities that do not transfer easily between firms. In recent decades the differences between firms in terms of their relative sales, productivity and wages appear to have increased in the US and many other industrialized countries. Higher sales concentration and apparent increases in aggregate markups have led to the concern that product market power has risen substantially which is a potential explanation for the falling labor share of GDP, sluggish productivity growth and other indicators of declining business dynamism. I suggest that this conclusion is premature. Many of the patterns are consistent with a more nuanced view where many industries have become "winner take most/all" due to globalization and new technologies rather than a generalized weakening of competition due to relaxed anti-trust rules or rising regulation.
    Keywords: firm differences, concentration, market power, policy
    JEL: L2 M2 O14 O32 O33
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Davide Antonioli (Università degli Studi "G. D'Annunzio" di Chieti-Pescara, Italy); Grazia Cecere (Télécom Ecole de Management, Institut Mines-Télécom, Paris, France); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy)
    Abstract: Information communication technology (ICT) and environmental innovation (EI) are relevant waves of the ongoing technological revolution. We study the complementarity in innovation adoption to test the research hypothesis that the higher the diffusion and intensity of usage of ICT and EI, the higher a firm’s productivity performance might be. However, it is not certain that the use of different innovations stemming from different innovation paths generates higher productivity. To test our hypothesis we use original survey data concerning manufacturing firms in Northeast Italy including detailed information on both ICT and EI. Empirical evidence shows that there are still wide margins to improve the integration between EI and ICT in order to exploit their potential benefits on productivity. The awareness of specific synergies seems to mainly characterize the heavy polluting firms that are subject to more stringent environmental constraints, while some trade-offs tend to emerge for the remaining firms.
    Keywords: ICT, environmental innovations, polluting sectors, complementarity, labour productivity
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: Marco Vivarelli
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide a critical overview of the drivers that the relevant theoretical and empirical literature suggests being crucial in dealing with the challenges an emerging country may encounter in its attempts to further catch-up a higher income status, with a particular focus devoted to the implications for the domestic labor market. In the first part of the paper, attention will be focused on structural change, capability building and technological progress, trying to map - using different taxonomies put forward by the innovation literature - the concrete ways through which an emerging country can engage a successful catching-up, having in mind that developing countries are deeply involved into globalized markets where domestic innovation has to be complemented by the role played by international technology transfer. In the second part of the paper, the focus will be moved to the possible consequences of this road to catching-up in terms of employment and skills. In particular, the prescriptions by the conventional trade theory will be contrasted with a view taking into account technology transfer, labor-saving technological progress and skill-enhancing trade.
    Keywords: catching-up, structural change, globalization, capabilities, technological transfer
    Date: 2018–09–28
  6. By: Bruno Brandao Fischer (University of Campinas); Maxim Kotsemir (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina Streltsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper compares and contrasts the patent-based indicators, traditionally used to assess a country’s technological capacities and specialization. It seeks to determine how a chosen metric might affect the results of such an analysis, sometimes being misleading. Empirically, the paper is based on the statistical information on patent activity of the top-10 patenting countries. It concludes with a clear demonstration of the need to employ a complex of patent-related indicators to make deliberate solutions on managing technological development of a country. Also the authors offer a taxonomy of technological capacities, which might further help understanding their current status and prospects for future progress. Above the methodological implications, the paper might be of an interest for policy-makers and practitioners as it analyzes the patent profiles and technological specialization of the global leaders
    Keywords: technological development, technological specialization, patent statistics
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Grillitsch, Markus (Lund University); Hansen, Teis (Lund University)
    Abstract: As response to environmental challenges such as global warming and the extinction of species sustainable regional development has become a key policy objective. Regions, however, vary in their preconditions for green industrial path development. Taking existing regional industrial specialization patterns as a starting point, this paper develops a new typology linking regional preconditions to various pathways for green industrial path development. This provides the foundation for identifying place-based policy implications for growing clean industries in different types of regions, grounded in the emerging perspective in innovation studies on policies for transformative change. The paper thereby helps to understand the pathways for greening the economy in different regional contexts and how such green pathways can be promoted through policy.
    Keywords: Green growth; regional development; cleantech; industrial path development; place-based policy; regional policy
    JEL: O30 O38 P48 Q50 Q58 R10 R58
    Date: 2018–09–27
  8. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the empirical evidence concerning the regional emergence of innovative new businesses. It is argued that analyses using aggregate data that focus on the regional level and do not account for career patterns of innovative founders are of limited value in guiding policy that is aimed at fostering the emergence of innovative new businesses. Progress can be mainly expected from research that investigates the family backgrounds, education, and employment careers of potential founders. Moreover, it would be helpful to develop clearer empirical definitions of what constitutes an innovative new business, and the distinctions between different types of innovative businesses.
    Keywords: Innovative start-ups, universities, employment career
    JEL: L26 D22 O31 R12 R30
    Date: 2018–09–24

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