nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2018‒10‒01
seven papers chosen by
Fulvio Castellacci
Universitetet i Oslo

  1. Young SMEs: Driving innovation in Europe? By Veugelers, Reinhilde; Ferrando, Annalisa; Lekpek, Senad; Weiss, Christoph T.
  2. The effect of clusters on the innovation performance of enterprises: traditional vs new industries By Miroslav Žižka; Vladimíra Valentová; Natalie Pelloneová; Eva Štichhauerová
  3. Bridging the gap : do fast-reacting fossil technologies facilitate renewable energy diffusion ? By Elena Verdolini; Francesco Vona; David Popp
  4. Firm Dynamics with Frictional Product and Labor Markets By Kaas, Leo; Kimasa, Bihemo
  5. R&D network formation with myopic and farsighted firms By MAULEON Ana,; SEMPERE-MONERRIS Jose J.,; VANNETELBOSCH Vincent,
  6. Environmental regulation and green skills : an empirical exploration By Francesco Vona; Giovanni Marin; Davide Consoli; David Popp
  7. Colombian export capabilities: building the firms-products network By Matteo Bruno; Fabio Saracco; Tiziano Squartini; Marco Due\~nas

  1. By: Veugelers, Reinhilde; Ferrando, Annalisa; Lekpek, Senad; Weiss, Christoph T.
    Abstract: Using large scale EIB Investment Survey evidence for 2016 covering 8,900 non-financial firms from all size and age classes across all sectors and all EU Member States, we identify different innovation profiles based on a firm's R&D investment and/or innovation activities. We find that "basic" firms - i.e. firms that do not engage in any type of R&D or innovation - are more common among young SMEs, while innovators - i.e. firms that do R&D and introduce new products, processes or services- are more often old and large firms. This hold particularly for "leading innovators", ie those introducing innovations new to the market. To further explore why young SMEs are not more active in innovation, we explore their access to finance. We confirm that young small leading innovators are the most likely to be credit constrained. Grants seem to at least partly addressing the external financing access problem for leading innovators, but not for young SMEs.
    Keywords: young small companies,innovation,access to finance
    JEL: G24 O31 O38
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Miroslav Žižka (Technical University of Liberec); Vladimíra Valentová (Technical University of Liberec); Natalie Pelloneová (Technical University of Liberec); Eva Štichhauerová (Technical University of Liberec)
    Abstract: The present paper assesses the effect of the formation of cluster organisations on the innovation performance of member enterprises in two different industries – the traditional textile manufacturing industry and the new nanotechnology industry. Innovation performance is explored using Data Envelopment Analysis in two phases. In the first phase, it examines the ability of enterprises to transform resources (labour force, long-term capital, intellectual capital) into registered industrial property rights: patents, utility models, industrial designs, and trademarks. In the second phase, it assesses the ability of enterprises to commercialise industrial property rights and generate profits. Innovation performance then integrates both phases. In each industry, two samples were assessed: member enterprises of cluster organisations, and enterprises that operate in the same industry and region but are not members of a cluster organisation. The results of the research show that the existence of a cluster organisation has a greater effect on innovation performance in the traditional textile manufacturing industry. In contrast, in the new nanotechnology industry, the existence of a cluster organisation did not prove to have any significant effect on innovation effectiveness. In this industry, the existence of a cluster organisation had only a partial effect related to better industrial property rights commercialisation. Research shows that the type of industry is an important factor in the innovation performance of clustered enterprises.
    Keywords: innovation effectiveness,data envelopment analysis,innovation efficiency,cluster organisation,industry cluster,textile cluster,nanotechnological cluster,innovation performance
    Date: 2018–06–29
  3. By: Elena Verdolini (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Milan); Francesco Vona (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); David Popp (Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs)
    Abstract: The diffusion of renewable energy in the power system implies high supply variability. Lacking economically viable storage options, renewable energy integration is possible thanks to the presence of modern mid-merit fossil-based technologies, which act as back-up capacity. This paper discusses the role of modern fossil-based power generation technologies in supporting renewable energy investments. We study the deployment of these two technologies conditional on all other drivers in 26 OECD countries between 1990 and 2013. We show that moving from the first to the third quartile of the distribution of modern fossil technologies is associated with an increase in yearly renewable energy investment of between 6 and 14 kW per thousand people, on average and ceteris paribus. This is a sizeable effect, considering that average yearly renewable capacity addition in our sample are around 12 kW per thousand people. These findings are robust to different econometric specifications, various definitions of modern fossil technologies and are stronger for wind, which is more intermittent and for which the mismatch between supply and demand is more marked. Our analysis points to the substantial indirect costs of renewable energy integration and highlights the complementarity of investments in different generation technologies for a successful decarbonization process.
    Keywords: Renewable energy instruments; Fossil energy investments; Complementarity; Energy and environmental policy
    Date: 2018–01
  4. By: Kaas, Leo (Goethe University Frankfurt); Kimasa, Bihemo (University of Konstanz)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the joint dynamics of prices, output and employment across firms. We develop a dynamic equilibrium model of heterogeneous firms who compete for workers and customers in frictional labor and product markets. Idiosyncratic productivity and demand shocks have distinct implications for the firms' output and price adjustments. Using panel data on prices and output for German manufacturing firms, we calibrate the model to evaluate the quantitative contributions of productivity and demand for the labor market and the dispersions of prices and labor productivity. We further analyze the impact of shocks to the first and second moments of idiosyncratic risk on macroeconomic outcomes. An increase in demand uncertainty induces sizable declines in output and employment together with rising cross-sectional dispersion of price and output growth which are typical features of recessions in our data.
    Keywords: firm dynamics, prices, demand, employment, uncertainty shocks
    JEL: D21 E24 L11
    Date: 2018–08
  5. By: MAULEON Ana, (Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles and CORE); SEMPERE-MONERRIS Jose J., (University of Valencia); VANNETELBOSCH Vincent, (CORE, Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: We study the formation of R&D networks when each firrm benefits from the research done by other firms it is connected to. Firms can be either myopic or farsighted when deciding about the links they want to form. We propose the notion of myopic-farsighted stable set to determine the R&D networks that emerge in the long run. When the majority of firms is myopic, stability leads to R&D networks consisting of either two asymmetric components with the largest component comprises three-quarters of firms or two symmetric components of nearly equal size with the largest component having only myopic firms. But, once the majority of firms becomes farsighted, only R&D networks with two asymmetric components remain stable. Firms in the largest component obtain greater profits, with farsighted firms having in average more collaborations than myopic firms that are either loose-ends or central for spreading the innovation within the component. Besides myopic and farsighted -firms, we introduce yes-firms that always accept the formation of any link and never delete a link subject to the constraint of non-negative profits. We show that yes-firms can stabilize R&D networks consisting of a single component that maximize the social welfare. Finally, we look at the evolution of R&D networks and we find that R&D networks with two symmetric components will be rapidly dismantled, single component R&D networks will persist many periods, while R&D networks consisting of two asymmetric components will persist forever.
    Keywords: networks, R&D collaborations, oligopoly, myopia, farsightedness
    JEL: C70 L13 L20
    Date: 2018–09–05
  6. By: Francesco Vona (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques); Giovanni Marin (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna); Davide Consoli (Institute of Innovation and Knowledge Management); David Popp
    Abstract: We present a data-driven methodology to identify occupational skills that are relevant for environmental sustainability. We find that these green skills are mostly engineering and technical know-how related to the design, production, management and monitoring of technology. We also evaluate the effect of environmental regulation on the demand of green skills exploiting exogenous geographical variation in regulatory stringency for a panel of US metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas over the period 2006-2014. Our results suggest that, while these recent changes in environmental regulation have no impact on overall employment, they create significant gaps in the demand for some green skills, especially those related to technical and engineering skills.
    Keywords: Environmental regulations; Green skills; Task model; Workforce composition
    JEL: J24 Q52
    Date: 2018–10
  7. By: Matteo Bruno; Fabio Saracco; Tiziano Squartini; Marco Due\~nas
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the bipartite Colombian firms-products network, throughout a period of five years, from 2010 to 2014. Our analysis depicts a strongly modular system, with several groups of firms specializing in the export of specific categories of products. These clusters have been detected by running the bipartite variant of the traditional modularity maximization, revealing a bi-modular structure. Interestingly, this finding is refined by applying a recently-proposed algorithm for projecting bipartite networks on the layer of interest and, then, running the Louvain algorithm on the resulting monopartite representations. Upon comparing the results of our study with the ones obtained by analysing the World Trade Web, important structural differences emerge, in particular, the bipartite representation of the latter is not characterized by a similar block-structure, as the modularity maximization fails in revealing (bipartite) nodes clusters. This points out that economic systems behave differently at different scales: while countries tend to diversify their production - potentially exporting a large number of different products - firms specialize in exporting (substantially very limited) baskets of basically homogeneous products.
    Date: 2018–09

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