nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2017‒04‒30
fifteen papers chosen by
Fulvio Castellacci
Universitetet i Oslo

  1. Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets By Daron Acemoglu; Pascual Restrepo
  2. Turbulence, Firm Decentralization and Growth in Bad Times By Philippe Aghion; Nicholas Bloom; Brian Lucking; Raffaella Sadun; John Van Reenen
  3. Where Do Green Technologies Come From? Inventor Teams’ Recombinant Capabilities and the Creation of New Knowledge. By Orsatti, Gianluca; Pezzoni, Michele; Quatraro, Francesco
  4. Endogenous Innovation: The Creative Response. By Antonelli, Crisiano
  5. Access to finance as a pressing problem: Evidence from innovative European firms By Anabela Marques Santos; Michele Cincera
  6. Comparative Determinants of Quality of Growth in Developing Countries By Simplice Asongu; Ndemaze Asongu
  7. Creative Destruction in the Era of Open Innovation: Empirical investigation into the relationship between patenting and survival of Japanese firms By IKEUCHI Kenta; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
  8. Offshore Profit Shifting and Domestic Productivity Measurement By Fatih Guvenen; Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr.; Dylan G. Rassier; Kim J. Ruhl
  9. Horizontal and Vertical Polarization: Task-Specific Technological Change in a Multi-Sector Economy By Sang Yoon Lee; Yongseok Shin
  10. Measuring Science Intensity of Industry using Linked Dataset of Science, Technology and Industry By IKEUCHI Kenta; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki; TAMURA Ryuichi; TSUKADA Naotoshi
  11. How firms (partially) organize their environment : Meta-organizations in the oil and gas industry By Héloïse Berkowitz; Hervé Dumez
  12. The role of environmental regulations and innovation in TFP convergence: Evidence from manufacturing SMEs in Viet Nam By Thanh Tam Nguyen-Huu; Minh Nguyen-Khac; Quoc Tran-Nam
  13. Regional labour market mobility. A network analysis of inter-firm relatedness By Shamnaaz B. Sufrauj; Giancarlo Corò; Mario Volpe
  14. Cross-border Vertical Integration and Intra-firm Trade: New evidence from Korean and Japanese firm-level data By Hyunbae CHUN; Jung HUR; Young Gak KIM; Hyeog Ug KWON
  15. Industry Growth through Spinoffs and Startups By OHYAMA Atsushi

  1. By: Daron Acemoglu; Pascual Restrepo
    Abstract: As robots and other computer-assisted technologies take over tasks previously performed by labor, there is increasing concern about the future of jobs and wages. We analyze the effect of the increase in industrial robot usage between 1990 and 2007 on US local labor markets. Using a model in which robots compete against human labor in the production of different tasks, we show that robots may reduce employment and wages, and that the local labor market effects of robots can be estimated by regressing the change in employment and wages on the exposure to robots in each local labor market—defined from the national penetration of robots into each industry and the local distribution of employment across industries. Using this approach, we estimate large and robust negative effects of robots on employment and wages across commuting zones. We bolster this evidence by showing that the commuting zones most exposed to robots in the post-1990 era do not exhibit any differential trends before 1990. The impact of robots is distinct from the impact of imports from China and Mexico, the decline of routine jobs, offshoring, other types of IT capital, and the total capital stock (in fact, exposure to robots is only weakly correlated with these other variables). According to our estimates, one more robot per thousand workers reduces the employment to population ratio by about 0.18-0.34 percentage points and wages by 0.25-0.5 percent.
    JEL: J23 J24
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Philippe Aghion; Nicholas Bloom; Brian Lucking; Raffaella Sadun; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: What is the optimal form of firm organization during "bad times"? Using two large micro datasets on firm decentralization from US administrative data and 10 OECD countries, we find that firms that delegated more power from the Central Headquarters to local plant managers prior to the Great Recession out-performed their centralized counterparts in sectors that were hardest hit by the subsequent crisis. We present a model where higher turbulence benefits decentralized firms because the value of local information and urgent action increases. Since turbulence rises in severe downturns, decentralized firms do relatively better. We show that the data support our model over alternative explanations such as recession-induced reduction in agency costs (due to managerial fears of bankruptcy) and changing coordination costs. Countries with more decentralized firms (like the US) weathered the 2008-09 Great Recession better: these organizational differences could account for about 16% of international differences in post-crisis GDP growth.
    Keywords: decentralization, growth, turbulence, Great Recession
    JEL: O31 F23
    Date: 2017–04
  3. By: Orsatti, Gianluca; Pezzoni, Michele; Quatraro, Francesco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: By exploiting the EPO universe of patent data, we investigate how inventors’ teams recombinant capabilities drive the creation of Green Technologies (GTs).Results suggest the importance of recombinant creation patterns in fostering the generation of GTs. We also find diverse moderating effects of technological green experience and environmental regulation stringency on exploration behaviors. Precisely, the positive effect of team’s explorative behaviors is magnified for teams lacking technological green experience, even more in regimes of weak environmental regulation. Conversely, the effect of explorative behaviors is reduced for green experienced teams, especially in regimes of weak environmental regulation. Finally, we find positive effects of both team’s previous technological green experience and environmental regulation stringency.
    Date: 2017–03
  4. By: Antonelli, Crisiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The limits of both evolutionary approaches, based upon biological metaphors, and the new growth theory based on the early economics of knowledge, are becoming apparent. Considerable progress can be made by implementing an evolutionary complexity approach that builds upon the legacy of Schumpeter (1947) with the notions of: i)reactive decision making; ii) multiple feedback; iii) innovation as the outcome of an emergent system process rather than individual action; iv);organized complexity and knowledge connectivity; iv) endogenous variety; vi) non ergodic path dependent dynamics. Building upon these bases, the paper articulates an endogenous theory of innovation centered upon the analysis of the systemic conditions that make the creative reaction and hence the introduction of innovations possible.
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Anabela Marques Santos; Michele Cincera
    Keywords: access to finance; innovative firms; European Union
    JEL: O16 O31 O52
    Date: 2017–04–24
  6. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Ndemaze Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: This study explores a new dataset in order to present the comparative determinants of growth quality in 93 developing countries for the period 1990-2011. We employ both cross-sectional and panel estimation techniques with contemporary and non-contemporary specifications. The determinants are quite heterogeneous in significance and magnitude with substantial inclinations to specifications and estimation techniques. We present and discuss the findings in increasing magnitude of significance so as to ease comparative readability. We also discuss how specificities in the modelling techniques are relevant for targeting growth quality. The results are timely and relevant for the post-2015 inclusive and sustainable development agenda.
    Keywords: Quality of growth; Development
    JEL: O40 O57 I10 I20 I32
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: IKEUCHI Kenta; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This paper uses patent filings as an indicator of innovation and investigates the relationship between innovation and the survival of young firms, based on a dataset linking the Economic Census and the Institute of Intellectual Property (IIP) Patent Database for Japanese firms. We construct indicators showing the organization of innovative activities, such as external collaboration on inventions and the type of collaborative partners, and disentangle two competing factors on innovative activities, i.e., technological capability (positive influencing firm survival) and commercial risk (negative influencing firm survival). We find that positive impacts surpass negative ones in general, and this tendency strengthens when patents have relatively greater potential market value. In addition, collaboration with universities invariably leads to a higher probability of survival, while the impact of collaboration with other firms depends on firm size, namely, a certain level of managerial resources to overcome the complexity involved in open innovation is required to achieve gains from collaboration.
    Date: 2017–03
  8. By: Fatih Guvenen; Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr.; Dylan G. Rassier; Kim J. Ruhl
    Abstract: Official statistics display a significant slowdown in U.S. aggregate productivity growth that begins in 2004. In this paper, we investigate a source of mismeasurement in official statistics, which arises from offshore profit shifting by multinational enterprises operating in the United States. This profit shifting causes part of the economic activity generated by these multinationals to be attributed to their foreign affiliates, leading to an understatement of measured U.S. gross domestic product. Profit-shifting activity has increased significantly since the mid-1990s, resulting in an understatement of measured U.S. aggregate productivity growth. We construct adjustments to correct for the effects of profit shifting on measured gross domestic product. The adjustments raise aggregate productivity growth rates by 0.1 percent annually for 1994–2004, 0.25 percent annually for 2004–2008, and leave productivity unchanged after 2008; Our adjustments mitigate, but do not overturn, the productivity slowdown in the official statistics. The adjustments are especially large in R&D-intensive industries, which are most likely to produce intangible assets that are easy to move across borders. The adjustments boost value added in these industries by as much as 8.0 percent annually in the mid-2000s.
    JEL: E01 E24 F23 O4
    Date: 2017–04
  9. By: Sang Yoon Lee; Yongseok Shin
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of technological change in a novel framework that integrates an economy's skill distribution with its occupational and industrial structure. Individuals become managers or workers based on their managerial vs. worker skills, and workers further sort into a continuum of tasks (occupations) ranked by skill content. Our theory dictates that faster technological progress for middle-skill tasks not only raises the employment shares and relative wages of lower- and higher-skill occupations among workers (horizontal polarization), but also raises those of managers over workers as a whole (vertical polarization). Both dimensions of polarization are faster within sectors that depend more on middle-skill tasks and less on managers. This endogenously leads to faster TFP growth of such sectors, whose employment and value-added shares shrink if sectoral goods are complementary (structural change). We present several novel facts that support our model, followed by a quantitative analysis showing that task-specific technological progress--which was fastest for occupations embodying routine-manual tasks but not interpersonal skills--is important for understanding changes in the sectoral, occupational, and organizational structure of the U.S. economy since 1980.
    JEL: J24 J31 L16 O14 O33
    Date: 2017–03
  10. By: IKEUCHI Kenta; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki; TAMURA Ryuichi; TSUKADA Naotoshi
    Abstract: This paper presents new indicators measuring the science intensity of industry in Japan, linking a scientific paper database (science), patent information (technology), and economic census data (industry). The new indicators reflect the interaction between science and industry, via academic patenting activities, which cannot be measured by an existing indicator of science linkage: non-patent literature (NPL) citations by patents. As the academic sector gets more involved in patenting activities, its scientific knowledge is being utilized by industries that are not categorized as science-based. Additionally, it was revealed that scientific knowledge has been increasingly used for industrial innovation over the last 10 years across all academic disciplines. Our study reiterates that public support of science is essential for industrial innovation.
    Date: 2017–03
  11. By: Héloïse Berkowitz (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - Polytechnique - X - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hervé Dumez (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - Polytechnique - X - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how firms collectively organize their environment. Past literature mostly focused on networks and institutions and has overlooked the role of meta-organizations in this process. Based on the case study of the oil and gas industry, we develop an abductive grounded theory model of meta-organizations as collective partial organizations. Our study shows that firms – complete organizations – organize their environment through the setting up of many meta-organizations – partial and thin organizations, which leads to a growing organizational complexity. This complexity results from the organizational creativity of firms when they are confronted to three decision situations. Finally, we highlight the importance of membership in MOs, analyze the various implications of its completeness or incompleteness for legitimacy, and discuss the emergent concept of outreach strategies which we argue to be central for thin organizations.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie la façon dont les firmes organisent collectivement leur environnement. La littérature a tendance à étudier cette question sous l’angle des réseaux et des institutions et s’est relativement peu intéressée au rôle des méta-organisations dans ce processus. A partir d’une étude de cas du secteur pétrolier et gazier, nous développement un modèle de méta-organisations comme organisations partielles support de l’action collective entre organisations. Notre article montre que les firmes—des organisations complètes—organisent collectivement leur environnement en mettant en place de nombreuses méta-organisations—des organisations partielles et légères—ce qui produit de la complexité organisationnelle. Cette complexité résulte de la créativité organisationnelle dont les firmes font preuve en étant confrontées à trois situations de décision. Enfin, nous éclairons l’importance des stratégies d’appartenance dans les méta-organisations, leurs implications en terme de légitimité, et l’émergence du concept de stratégie de sensibilisation.
    Keywords: Partial organization,meta-organization,collective strategy,oil and gas,abductive,outreach,Organisation partielle, méta-organisation, stratégie collective, industrie pétrolière
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Thanh Tam Nguyen-Huu; Minh Nguyen-Khac; Quoc Tran-Nam
    Abstract: This is a pioneer study investigating the relationship between environmental compliance and TFP convergence for SMEs. It examines the impacts of environmental compliance, and its combination with innovation, on TFP convergence of manufacturing SMEs. We applied the dynamic panel regression method to estimate stochastic TFP. We find evidence of a ß-convergence but a s-divergence. Impacts of environmental practices of firms—pollution abatement and control expenditure, and environmental treatment—are only significant through their interaction with innovation. The ß-convergence in firms’ TFP is influenced by their industrial identity, while firms’ size and investment have marginal impacts.
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Shamnaaz B. Sufrauj (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Giancarlo Corò (Economics, Languages and Entrepreneurship, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Mario Volpe (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: Labour market rigidity is known to hamper the proper adjustment of an economy, thus, making it less resilient to shocks. This paper investigates the characteristics and resilience of the regional labour flow network in Veneto, a region famous for its industrial districts and the expertise of its workforce. A unique database of inter-firm worker mobility is used and the made-in-Italy relatedness to other industries is quantified. Descriptive results suggest that permanent-contract workers are more mobile within-sector than fixed-term contractors. The latter are more mobile across sectors. A finer disaggregation of the made-in-Italy industries shows that textile, food and woodwork are highly related to leisure-retail, logistics-wholesale and agriculture. These results can orient policy-making in getting faster labour reallocation. Network analysis establishes a number of stylised facts about labour flow networks, in particular, a hierarchical organisation of flows and a preference for workers to move from low-connected to high-connected firms and vice-versa, i.e. disassortativity. Unlike previous research, this paper identifies clusters of a non-spatial nature, that are, based on the intensity of labour flows. Regression analysis shows that labour mobility, both in and out, is beneficial for firms. However, being located inside labour clusters negatively affects firm performance. Interestingly, when these clusters include MNEs, they benefit. These results combined suggest that variety of connections prevails over standardisation.
    Keywords: Labour mobility, network analysis, skill-relatedness cross-industry linkages
    JEL: J24 J62 L14 R23 F23
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Hyunbae CHUN; Jung HUR; Young Gak KIM; Hyeog Ug KWON
    Abstract: This paper gives two findings about the cross-border vertical integration and intra-firm trade of firms in Korean and Japanese manufacturing industries. First, the intra-firm trade between a parent firm and its affiliates is highly concentrated in a small number of large multinational corporations. Second, the input-output coefficient between the parent firm's industry and the affiliate's industry is weakly related to the presence and magnitude of intra-firm trade between the parent firm and its affiliates. Furthermore, these two findings are also found in domestic vertically integrated firms. In particular, the second fact casts doubt on the traditional view of the cost-saving motive of vertical multinational firms and indicates the need for further investigation on a new motive for cross-border vertical integration.
    Date: 2017–03
  15. By: OHYAMA Atsushi
    Abstract: The literature on industry life cycle suggests that there is some underlying mechanism that generates differences in time for industries reaching their peaks. What causes variation in such peak times across industries? In this paper, I use the Japanese Census of Manufacture and investigate (i) whether creation and destruction of submarkets in an industry affect the length of positive net entry periods and subsequent entry rates, (ii) what type of firm is more likely to be actively engaged in a newly created or destructed submarket, and (iii) how reallocation of unrealized opportunities from incumbent firms to spinoff firms affects the entry process. This study reveals that the creation and destruction of a submarket allow an industry to continue attracting new entrants, that startup and spinoff firms are more likely to enter a newly created submarket than incumbent firms, and that new entry is encouraged when unrealized business opportunities are reallocated smoothly.
    Date: 2017–03

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