nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2015‒11‒15
six papers chosen by
Fulvio Castellacci
Universitetet i Oslo

  1. High Growth Firms and Technological Knowledge: Do gazelles follow exploration or exploitation strategies? By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
  2. Human Resources and Innovation: Total Factor Productivity and Foreign Human Capital. By Fassio, Claudio; Kalantaryan, Sona; Venturini, Alessandra
  4. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs By Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane
  5. Technology Diffusion via Patent Collaborations: The Case of European Integration By Julien Berthoumieu
  6. Who Quits Next? Firm Growth in Growing Economies By Emircan Yurdagul; Julieta Caunedo

  1. By: Alessandra Colombelli (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Jackie Krafft (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS, Department of Economics, University of Turin - University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the contribution of high-growth firms to the process of knowledge creation. We articulate a demand-pull innovation framework in which knowledge creation is driven by sales growth, and knowledge stems from creative recombination. Given the established literature on high growth firms and economic growth, we wonder whether gazelles follow patterns of knowledge creation mostly dominated by exploration or exploitation strategies. To this purpose, we derive indicators able to describe the structure of knowledge and qualify firms' innovation strategies. The empirical results suggest that the reality is richer than the interpretative frameworks. Increasing growth rates are indeed associated to exploration strategies, supporting the idea that high growth firms are key actors in the creation of new technological knowledge. But in the meantime, firms showing growth rates significantly higher than the average are able to command the exploration strategies by constraining them within the boundaries of familiar technological competences, suggesting that the exploration process is less random than anticipated. We end up with the result that high growth firms, and especially gazelles, follow predominantly an exploration strategy, but with the characteristics of an organized search which is often more observed in an exploitation strategy.
    Keywords: Gazelles,Recombinant Knowledge,Schumpeterian innovation patterns
    Date: 2014–04–01
  2. By: Fassio, Claudio; Kalantaryan, Sona; Venturini, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the role of migrants in innovation in Europe. We use Total Factor Productivity as a measure of innovation and focus on the three largest European countries – France, Germany and the United Kingdom – in the years 1994-2007. Unlike previous research, which mainly employs a regional approach, we analyse ù the link between migration and innovation at the sectoral level. This allows us to measure the direct contribution of migrants in the sector in which they are actually employed. Moreover, it allows a distinction between the real contribution of migrants to innovation from possible inter-sectoral complementarities, which might as well foster innovation. We control for the different components of human-capital, such as age, education and diversity of origin. To address the possible endogeneity of migration we draw on an instrumental variable strategy originally devised by Card (2001) and adapt it at the sector level The results show that overall migrants are relevant in all sectors, but some important differences emerge across sectors: highlyeducated migrants show a larger positive effect in the high-tech sectors, while middle- and loweducated ones are more relevant in manufacturing. The diversity of countries of origin contributes to innovation only in the services sectors, confirming that in empirical analyses at the regional or national level the diversity measure might capture the complementarity between sectors rather than the contribution of different national skills.
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Bradley, Sebastien (School of Economics); Dauchy, Estelle (New Economic School); Robinson, Leslie (Tuck School of Business)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the initial impacts of patent box regimes in light of their primary stated objectives: stimulating domestic innovation and retaining mobile patent income to limit base erosion. Despite their lack of nexus requirements, we find that patent box regimes yield a 3 percent increase in new patent applications for every percentage point reduction in the tax rate on patent income. We find no significant impact of these regimes on deterring outward cross-border attribution of patent ownership, or on attracting ownership of foreign inventions. Increased patenting activity hence appears focused on inventions involving co-located (domestic) patent owners and inventors.
    Keywords: patent box; tax policy; innovation; base erosion
    JEL: H25 H32 K34
    Date: 2015–10–01
  4. By: Lamiraud, Karine (ESSEC et THEMA (Université de Cergy Pontoise)); Lhuillery, Stephane (BETA (UMR-CNRS 7522) and ICN Business School, Nancy, France)
    Abstract: Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare costs covered by basic health insurance while controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. Our results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare costs while increased availability of PTCA facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies which did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies.
    Keywords: healthcare costs; technology change; medical research
    JEL: D60 I10 O30
    Date: 2015–11–06
  5. By: Julien Berthoumieu (Larefi - Laboratoire d'analyse et de recherche en économie et finance internationales - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux 4)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the impact of potential determinants for technology diffusion via patent collaborations between emerging and developed countries in Europe by implementing an econometric estimation with panel data. First, we use the probability of patent collaborations as the explained variable under LOGIT estimations. Then, we use the intensity of collaborations under both OLS/GLS and Poisson estimations. We especially study the impact of the European Union integration of Eastern Europe countries on such technological collaborations with European Western countries. We also analyze the impact of further explanatory variables such as common borders, geographic distance, Gross Domestic Products, populations, income inequalities, Research and Development expenditures, technological gap, technological distance public expenditures in education, bilateral trade and Foreign Direct Investments. The results show that the European integration of emerging countries does not significantly increase the probability of patent collaborations. But it does significantly increase the intensity of patent collaborations. Emerging countries’ exports to developed countries is the main determinant for both the probability and the number of patent collaborations. The impact is significant and positive.
    Keywords: Technology Diffusion, Patent Collaborations, Econometric Estimation, European Union Integration.
    Date: 2015–11–05
  6. By: Emircan Yurdagul (Washington University in Saint Louis); Julieta Caunedo (Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper provides a theory linking characteristics of the industry dynamics to aggregate growth. We analyze firms' life cycle productivity, employment-age profiles, and firm selection across countries. Using a large cross-country dataset we document (i) more frequent labor productivity growth for firms operating in fast growing economies, (ii) lack of systematic relationship between the tail of the employment size distribution and growth and (iii) steeper employment-age profiles in slow growing economies. Our working thesis is that firms' likelihood of turning their investments into actual productivity growth, and uncertainty on their returns if successful, impacts firms investment in productivity, selection and aggregate growth. We think of firm uncertainty broadly, to include for example political instability, changes in tax regimes, lack of social capital or firm demand fluctuations. We argue that in slow growing rich productive economies, steep-employment age profiles are related to high return uncertainty and strong firm selection. We are able to accommodate poor and rich slow growing economies by decoupling firm's probability of success from return uncertainty. We build a tractable general equilibrium model that displays endogenous long run growth compatible with a stationary size distribution and the documented empirical facts. We contribute to the literature by analyzing how variations in the probability of firm success and return uncertainty account for differences in observed industry structure and its relationship with aggregate growth.
    Date: 2015

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