nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2015‒01‒14
six papers chosen by
Fulvio Castellacci
Universitetet i Oslo

  1. Tax incentives and firm size : effects on private R&D investment in Spain By Labeaga Azcona J.; Martínez-Ros E.; Mohnen P.
  2. Innovation and credit constraints: Evidence from Swedish exporting firms By Lööf , Hans; Nabavi, Pardis
  3. The Structure and Evolution of Intersectoral Technological Complementarity in R&D in Germany from 1990 to 2011 By Matthias Brachert; T. Brökel
  4. Has the internet fostered inclusive innovation in the developing world? By Paunov C.; Rollo V.
  5. Inventor Networks in Renewable Energies: The Influence of the Policy Mix in Germany By Uwe Cantner; Holger Graf; Johannes Herrmann; Martin Kalthaus
  6. Are Patent Fees Effective at Weeding out Low-quality Patents? By Gaétan de Rassenfosse; Adam B. Jaffe

  1. By: Labeaga Azcona J.; Martínez-Ros E.; Mohnen P. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: The use of fiscal policy instruments to stimulate private RD is widespread and important in some countries like Spain. In this paper we explore the effectiveness of RD tax incentives on knowledge capital accumulation in Spanish manufacturing firms using an unbalanced panel and compare the estimates based on claimed and claimable tax reductions. We find that while large firms use the programme more than small ones, the impact of the programme measured by the price elasticity is smaller for large firms than for SMEs. The price elasticities are higher when the ex-ante claimable tax reductions rather than the ex-post actually claimed tax eductions are used to compute the user cost of RD.
    Keywords: Business Taxes and Subsidies including sales and value-added (VAT); Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: Firm; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D;
    JEL: H25 H32 O32
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Lööf , Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Nabavi, Pardis (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Existing studies associates financial constraints among innovators to small, young and high-tech firms. High adjustment cost implies that firms save money by smoothing innovation spending across the business cycle if they have available resources. This paper examines whether previous findings on financial constraints can be generalized to exporting firms. To do so, we investigate possible differences in the innovation-cash flow link between high-tech firms and all exporters, creation and exploitation innovation activities, persistent and non-persistent exporters. Applying a modified Euler model and dynamic two-step GMM estimator on close to 7,000 exporting firms in Sweden, the estimation shows that (i) the typical exporter is not financially constrained in any type of innovation activities, (ii) high-tech firms - but only persistent exporters - behave as if they have higher adjustment cost than other firms engaged in knowledge creating activities, and (iii) both persistent and non-persistent exporters in high-tech sector are more financially constrained than the whole group of manufacturing exporters when innovation is measured as knowledge exploitation.
    Keywords: innovation; exports; credit constraints; two-step GMM
    JEL: F14 G32 O16 O30 O32
    Date: 2014–12–18
  3. By: Matthias Brachert; T. Brökel
    Abstract: Technological complementarity is argued to be a crucial element for effective Research and Development (R&D) collaboration. The real structure is, however, still largely unknown. Based on the argument that organizations’ knowledge resources must fit for enabling collective learning and innovation, we use the co-occurrence of firms in collaborative R&D projects in Germany to assess inter-sectoral technological complementarity between 129 sectors. The results are mapped as complementarity space for the Germany economy. The space and its dynamics from 1990 to 2011 are analyzed by means of social network analysis. The results illustrate sectors being complements both from a dyadic and portfolio/ network perspective. This latter is important, as complementarities may only become fully effective when integrated in a complete set of different knowledge resources from multiple sectors. The dynamic perspective moreover reveals the shifting demand for knowledge resources among sectors at different time periods.
    Keywords: collaborative R&D projects, resource complementarity, co-occurrence analysis
    JEL: L14 O31
    Date: 2014–12
  4. By: Paunov C.; Rollo V. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Based on 50,013 firm observations covering 117 developing and emerging countries, this paper shows knowledge spillover effects from industries use of the internet boosted the average firms productivity and innovation performance. We document that industries digitization had heterogeneous impacts results from quantile regressions indicate that the most productive firms benefited much more than others. Wider Internet adoption rates were also of larger benefit to single-plant establishments, non-exporters and firms in remote locations, particularly to the most productive among these firms. Overall, we document that the internet can play an important role to support inclusive innovation, conditional on firms absorptive capacities.
    Keywords: Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis; Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development; Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology; Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes;
    JEL: O33 O14 O12 D22
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Holger Graf (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Johannes Herrmann (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Martin Kalthaus (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: Technological change and gains in efficiency of renewable power generation technologies are to a large extent driven by governmental support. Various policies that can broadly be categorized as technology push, demand pull or systemic constitute a policy mix for renewable energies. Our goal is to gain insights on the influence of this policy mix on the intensity and organization of inventive activities within the technological innovation systems for wind power and photovoltaic in Germany since the 1980s. We examine the effect of different instruments on the size and structure of co-inventor networks based on patent data. Our results indicate notable differences between the technologies: The network size for wind power is driven by technology push and systemic instruments, while in photovoltaic demand pull is decisive for network growth. The instruments complement each other and form a consistent policy mix. The structure of the networks is driven by demand pull for both technologies. Systemic instruments increase interaction especially in the wind power network and are complementary to demand pull in fostering collaboration.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy, Inventor Network, Policy Mix, Systemic Instrument, Technology Push, Demand Pull
    JEL: Q42 Q55 L14 O38
    Date: 2014–12–23
  6. By: Gaétan de Rassenfosse; Adam B. Jaffe
    Abstract: The paper investigates whether patent fees are an effective mechanism to deter the filing of low-quality patent applications. The study analyzes the effect of the Patent Law Amendment Act of 1982, which resulted in a substantial increase in patenting fees at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, on patent quality. Results from a series of difference-in-differences regressions suggest that the increase in fees led to a weeding out of low-quality patents. About 16–17 per cent of patents in the lowest quality decile were filtered out. The figure reaches 24–30 per cent for patents in the lowest quality quintile. However, the fee elasticity of quality decreased with the size of the patent portfolio held by applicants. The study is relevant to concerns about declines in patent quality and the financial vulnerability of patent offices.
    JEL: K2 O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2014–12

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