nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2014‒10‒17
four papers chosen by
Fulvio Castellacci
Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt

  1. Inter-industry labor reallocation and task distance By Ayako Kondo; Saori Naganuma
  2. The micro patterns of export diversification under financial constraints By Angelo Secchi; Federico Tamagni; Chiara Tomasi
  3. Taxation Of R&D: Review Of Practices By Galina A. Kitova
  4. Models of Innovation in Global ICT Firms: The Emerging Global Innovation Ecosystems By Martin Fransman

  1. By: Ayako Kondo (Yokohama National University); Saori Naganuma (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the factors preventing inter-industry labor reallocation by estimating the determinants of inter-industry worker flow and earnings change after a job change. We find that the difference in required tasks is an important reason for reduction in earnings after an inter-industry job change, and the fear of earnings losses may prevent workers from moving to industries requiring a different set of tasks. Also, more workers switch to industries with which their previous industry had larger transactions, although it affects earnings changes only marginally. On the other hand, industry performance does not affect labor inflow or wage changes significantly for inter-industry job changes. Furthermore, earnings loss associated with a move to a distant industry is not necessarily smaller for workers who are relatively more likely to move to a distant industry.
    Keywords: inter-industry labor mobility; task specific human capital
    JEL: J62 J21
    Date: 2014–09–30
  2. By: Angelo Secchi; Federico Tamagni; Chiara Tomasi
    Abstract: Combining detailed data on export transactions and an informative firm level measure of financing constraints, this paper provides new evidence on the extent and dynamics of product and geographical diversification of constrained exporters. Financial constraints associates with: (i) narrower product/destination margins; (ii) higher probability to drop products and destinations, (iii) higher loss of export value associated to dropping product or destination markets; (iv) higher probability to discard products with relatively high share in firm total export values, and (v) higher likelihood to drop country markets that are bigger, richer, geographically closer and with a relatively high share in total firm export value.
    Keywords: financial constraints, product-country extensive margins, product-country dropping, product attributes, gravity variables
    Date: 2014–09–22
  3. By: Galina A. Kitova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years R&D tax incentives have been characterized by increasing scale and spread on innovation activity. Approaches to integrated R&D tax incentives into "recipes" for long-term growth and competitiveness were developed and tested in many countries. For exam-ple, only 12 OECD members employed R&D tax incentives in 1995, but 27 members do so in 2013 (as well as Brazil, China, India, Russia and other countries). And their share of total government expenditure on R&D (direct and tax) by OECD member countries reached at least a third. These trends have accompanied the development and testing of approaches to estimate the costs of tax support for R&D (including tax expenditures) and its effects and to ensure that they are internationally compatible. As for Russia, there are no officially accepted estimates of the scale and effectiveness of R&D and innovation tax support yet, though efforts to calculate them have been under way since 2010. This paper includes the current state of empirical research of tax support for R&D and in-novation in the Russian Federation, as well as a survey of the demand for its tools from research institutes, universities performing R&D, and manufacturing enterprises, which was conducted in 2012-2013. The results obtained demonstrate the power of empirical analysis and optimization of R&D and innovation tax incentives in the Russian Federation, against the background of the field's best practices and current trends.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, tax incentives, tax expenditures, demand for R&D and in-novation tax incentives.
    JEL: H21 H22 H25
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Martin Fransman (University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: This report focuses on the changing models of innovation adopted by some of the largest and most innovative global ICT companies in the world, including Apple, BT, Google, Microsoft, Skype, Telefonica and Vodafone. One of the main contributions of this report is to demonstrate that, in order to understand these innovation models, it is necessary at the same time to understand the dynamics of innovation at sector level. Beginning with an analysis of the innovation process in the ICT ecosystem, the author drills down into the company global innovation ecosystems that have been created by these global companies. In addition, he explores some of the implications that proliferating company global innovation ecosystems have for government policy. He concludes that whilst innovation is changing the world, changing global circumstances are in turn transforming the innovation model in companies, both large and small, around the world.
    Keywords: innovation, ICT
    JEL: L1 L22 L63 L86
    Date: 2014–09

This nep-tid issue is ©2014 by Fulvio Castellacci. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.