nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2011‒06‒25
four papers chosen by
Rui Baptista
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Innovation and diffusion of clean/green technology: Can patent commons help? By Hall, Bronwyn H.; Helmers, Christian
  2. Patterns of Technology, Industry Concentration, and Productivity Growth Without Scale Effects By Colin Davis; Ken-ichi Hashimoto
  3. The link between public support and private R&D effort: What is the optimal subsidy? By Néstor Duch-Brown; José García-Quevedo; Daniel Montolio
  4. Innovationsbedingte Beschäftigungs- und Umsatzeffekte bei Unternehmen im Raum Jena By Kaps, Katharina; Pfeil, Silko; Sauer, Thomas; Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang

  1. By: Hall, Bronwyn H. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, UC Berkeley, NBER, and IFS); Helmers, Christian (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, LSE)
    Abstract: This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 94 “inventions” contributed by major multinational innovators to the “Eco-Patent Commons”, which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented climate change related innovations. By comparing the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same multinationals, we investigate the motives of the contributing firms as well as the potential for such commons to encourage innovation and diffusion of climate change related technologies. This study, therefore, indirectly provides evidence on the role of patents in the development and diffusion of green technologies. More generally, the paper sheds light on the performance of hybrid forms of knowledge management that combine open innovation and patenting.
    Keywords: patent commons, green technology, eco-aptents, diffusion, climate change
    JEL: H23 H42 K11 O33 O34
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Colin Davis (Institute for International Education, Doshisha University); Ken-ichi Hashimoto (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between geographic patterns of industrial activity and endogenous growth in a two region model of trade that exhibits no scale effect. The in-house process innovation of manufacturing firms drives productivity growth and is closely associated with firm-level scales of production and relative levels of accessible technical knowledge. Focusing on long-run industry shares and a cross-region productivity gap, we find that dispersed equilibria with positive industry shares for both regions always produce higher growth rates than core-periphery equilibria with all industry locating in one region. Moreover, the highest growth rate arises in a symmetric steady state that features no productivity gap and equal shares of industry leading to the conclusion that the geographic concentration of industry has a negative impact on overall growth. Convergence towards a dispersed equilibrium, however, is contingent on the levels of inter-regional transport costs and knowledge dispersion. Finally, we explore the implications of greater economic integration arising from reduced transport costs and greater knowledge dispersion for patterns of industry and productivity, and for regional welfare levels within a dispersed equilibrium.
    Keywords: Industry Concentration, Industry Share, Productivity Gap, Productivity Growth, Scale Effect
    JEL: F43 O30 O40 R12
    Date: 2011–06
  3. By: Néstor Duch-Brown (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain)); José García-Quevedo (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain)); Daniel Montolio (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain))
    Abstract: The effectiveness of R&D subsidies can vary substantially depending on their characteristics. Specifically, the amount and intensity of such subsidies are crucial issues in the design of public schemes supporting private R&D. Public agencies determine the intensities of R&D subsidies for firms in line with their eligibility criteria, although assessing the effects of R&D projects accurately is far from straightforward. The main aim of this paper is to examine whether there is an optimal intensity for R&D subsidies through an analysis of their impact on private R&D effort. We examine the decisions of a public agency to grant subsidies taking into account not only the characteristics of the firms but also, as few previous studies have done to date, those of the R&D projects. In determining the optimal subsidy we use both parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results show a non-linear relationship between the percentage of subsidy received and the firms’ R&D effort. These results have implications for technology policy, particularly for the design of R&D subsidies that ensure enhanced effectiveness.
    Keywords: R&D, public subsidies, evaluation
    JEL: O38 H32
    Date: 2011–06
  4. By: Kaps, Katharina; Pfeil, Silko; Sauer, Thomas; Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang
    Abstract: Vorliegendes Paper analysiert den Innovationserfolg von schwerpunktmäßig kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen (KMU) in der Region Jena auf Basis der Datensätze des Projektes KompNet2011 - Erfolgsfaktoren regionaler Innovationsnetze. Hierbei wird der Innovationserfolg sowohl mit Hilfe von Mengen- als auch Wertindikatoren gemessen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass alle innovativen Unternehmen im Betrachtungs-zeitraum 2006 bis 2010 im Durchschnitt sowohl ihren Mitarbeiterstamm als auch ihren Umsatz ausweiten konnten. Letzteres gilt jedoch nicht für Unternehmen, die schwerpunktmäßig an subjektiven Prozessinnovationen arbeiteten. Um den relativen Erfolg in Abhängigkeit der Innovationsstrategie zu ermitteln, wurde die Abweichung von der durchschnittlichen Wachstumsrate betrachtet. Betriebe, deren Innovationsstrategie auf die Entwicklung gänzlich neuer Produkte bzw. Prozesse gerichtet ist, weisen ein überdurchschnittliches Beschäftigungs- und Umsatzwachstum auf, während Unternehmen mit subjektiven Prozessneuheiten und Organisationsinnovationen nur unterdurchschnittlich wachsen. Bei allen anderen Innovationsarten fällt die Beurteilung des Innovationserfolges je nach Erfolgsindikator einerseits unter- und andererseits überdurchschnittlich aus. Abschließend konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Unternehmen, die seit 2006 mehrmals innovativ waren, im betrachteten Vier-Jahres-Zeitraum eine überdurchschnittlich expansive Entwicklung verzeichnen konnten. -- We examine the innovation success of predominant small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in and closely around Jena (Thuringia) by using the data sets of the research project KompNet 2011 - Factors determining the success of regional innovation networks. We measure the innovation success via different indicators, e.g. number of employees and revenue. In the period under control, 2006 until 2010, the analysis reveals on average an increase of the number of employees and a growth in revenue for all innovative firms. Only enterprises whose innovation strategy is focused on the introduction of processes new to the firm show a decline in revenue. To evaluate the relative success according to the innovation strategy we analyse the deviance from the average growth rates. Companies whose innovation strategy is to develop objective innovation types (market innovations, objective process innovations) reach superior employment and revenue growth rates. In contrast, enterprises with subjective process innovations and organizational innovations grow below average. For all other innovation types the evaluation of the innovation success differs subject to the used indicator. Furthermore we show steady expansive development of those companies, which introduce two or more product/process innovations since 2006.
    Keywords: Beschäftigungseffekte,Innovationserfolg,Marketinginnovation,organisatorische Innovation,Produktinnovation,Prozessinnovation,Umsatz,employment effects,innovation success,marketing innovation,organizational innovation,product innovation,process innovation,revenue
    JEL: M12 O32 O33
    Date: 2011

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