nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2011‒02‒19
six papers chosen by
Rui Baptista
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Advertising and R&D: Theory and evidence from France By Phillipe Askenazy; Thomas Breda; Delphine Irac
  2. Spatial Differentiation in Industrial Dynamics. A Core-Periphery Analysis based on the Pavitt-Miozzo-Soete Taxonomy By Marco Capasso; Elena Cefis; Koen Frenken
  3. Rewarding innovation efficiently: Research spill-overs and exclusive IP rights By Vincenzo Denicol; Luigi A. Franzoni
  4. Commercialization, Renewal and Quality of Patents By Svensson, Roger
  5. Framing the empirical findings on firm growth By Marco Capasso; Elena Cefis; Sandro Sapio
  6. Firm Size and Growth Rate Variance: the Effects of Data Truncation By Marco Capasso; Elena Cefis

  1. By: Phillipe Askenazy (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor - IZA, Banque de France - Banque de France); Thomas Breda (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Delphine Irac (Banque de France - Banque de France)
    Abstract: This paper exploits a unique panel of 59,000 French firms over 1990-2004 to investigate the interactions between R&D, advertising and the competitive environment.The empirical findings confirm the predictions of a dynamic model that complements results known in static frameworks. First, more competition pushes Neck and Neck firms to advertise more to attract a larger share of consumers on their products or services. Second, for a given competitive environment, quality leaders spend more in advertising in order to extract maximal rents; thus, lower costs of ads may favor R&D.
    Keywords: advertising ; innovation ; competition ; Lerner
    Date: 2010–12
  2. By: Marco Capasso; Elena Cefis; Koen Frenken
    Abstract: We compare the industrial dynamics in the core, semi-periphery and periphery in The Netherlands in terms of firm entry-exit, size, growth and sectoral location patterns. The contribution of our work is to provide the first comprehensive study on spatial differentiation in industrial dynamics for all firm sizes and all sectors, including services. We find that at the aggregate level the spatial pattern of industrial dynamics is consistent with the spatial product lifecycle thesis: entry and exit rates are highest in the core and lowest in the periphery, while the share of persistently growing firms is higher in the periphery than in the core. Disaggregating the analysis to the sectoral level following the Pavitt-Miozzo-Soete taxonomy, findings are less robust. Finally, sectoral location patterns are largely consistent with the spatial product lifecycle model: Fordist sectors are over-represented in the periphery, while sectors associated with the ICT paradigm are over-represented in the core, with the notable exception of science-based manufacturing.
    Keywords: Entry, exit, spatial product lifecycle, Fordist paradigm, ICT paradigm
    JEL: L25 L26 L60 L80 O18 O33 R10
    Date: 2010–11
  3. By: Vincenzo Denicol (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Luigi A. Franzoni (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development ResearchInstitute of Economic Growth)
    Abstract: We investigate the conditions for the desirability of exclusive intellectual property rights for innovators as opposed to weak rights allowing for some degree of imitation and ex-post competition. The comparison between the two alternatives reduces to a specific "ratio test," which suggests that strong exclusive IP rights are preferable when competition from potential imitators is weak, the innovation attracts large R&D investments, and research spill-overs are small.
    Keywords: Kaplow test, research spill-overs, patents and trade secrets, independent invention defense, mandatory licensing
    JEL: K21
    Date: 2011–01
  4. By: Svensson, Roger (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: One of the major reasons why inventors are awarded patents by governments is they encourage R&D investments and commercialization of inventions. If the patent holder commercializes his invention, he has stronger incentives to retain the patent. The purpose here is to empirically analyze the relationship between commercialization and the renewal of patents. At the same time, I take into account defensive patent strategies (e.g. deterring competitors from utilizing the patent) and pointedly ask if there are any third factors (quality of the patent) that affect the commercialization and renewal decisions. Using a detailed database of Swedish patents, I utilize a survival model to estimate how commercialization influences the patent renewal decision. Basic results show commercialization and defensive strategies increase the probability a patent will be renewed, but also that quality influences commercialization and renewal decisions. When controlling for endogenous commercialization decision, there is still a strong positive relationship between commercialization and renewal of patents. Thus, given the quality of the patent, if the owner decides to commercialize the patent on the margin, this leads to longer survival of the patent. With regard to commercialization modes, there is some evidence licensed patents and patents commercialized in original and new firms – but not acquired patents – survive longer than non-commercialized patents. Looking more closely at the contracts of acquired and licensed patents, contracts with both variable and fixed fees – but not contracts with either variable or fixed fees – survive longer than non-commercialized patents. However, the analysis about modes and contract terms does not take into account the endogeneity problem.
    Keywords: Patents; Renewal; Commercialization; quality; Commercialization modes; Contract terms; Survival models
    JEL: L24 O31 O34
    Date: 2011–01–31
  5. By: Marco Capasso; Elena Cefis; Sandro Sapio
    Abstract: This paper proposes a general framework to account for the divergent results in the empirical literature on the relation between firm sizes and growth rates, and on many results on growth autocorrelation. In particular, we provide an explanation for why traces of the LPE sometimes occur in conditional mean (i.e. OLS) autoregressions of firm size or firm growth, and in conditional median (i.e. least absolute deviation) autoregressions, but never in high or low quantile autoregressions. Based on an original empirical analysis of the population of manufacturing firms in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2004, we find that there is no peculiar role played by the median of the growth distribution, which is approximately equal to zero independent of firm size. In economic terms, this is equivalent to saying that most of the phenomena of interest for industrial dynamics can be studied without reference to the behaviour of the median firm, and many `average' relations retrieved in the literature, starting from the negative relation between average size and average growth, are driven by the few dynamic firms in the sample rather than the many stable ones. Moreover, we observe the tent shape of the empirical firm growth rate distribution and confirm the skewness-size and the variance-size relations. The identified quantile regression patterns - autoregressive coefficients above 1 for fast decliners, and below 1 for fast growers - can be obtained by assuming negative variance-size scaling and Laplace growth rate distributions, and are robust to a mild positive relationship between skewness and size. A relationship between quantile regression patterns and previous findings is therefore uncovered.
    Keywords: Firm growth; Law of Proportionate Effect; quantile regression; heterogeneity; variance-size scaling.
    JEL: L11 L25 L60
    Date: 2010–11
  6. By: Marco Capasso; Elena Cefis
    Abstract: This paper discusses the effects of the existence of natural and/or exogenously imposed thresholds in firm size distributions, on estimations of the relation between firm size and variance in firm growth rates. We explain why the results in the literature on this relationship are not consistent. We argue that a natural threshold (0 number of employees or 0 total sales) and/or the existence of truncating thresholds in the dataset, can lead to upwardly biased estimations of the relation. We show the potential impact of the bias on simulated data, suggest a methodology to improve these estimations, and present an empirical analysis based on a comprehensive dataset of Dutch manufacturing and service firms. The only stable relation between firm size and growth rate variance is negative regardless of how we define the measure of firm growth.
    Keywords: firm growth, growth rates variance; truncation; thresholds
    JEL: L25 C21
    Date: 2010–11

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