nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2009‒03‒14
two papers chosen by
Rui Baptista
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Open Innovation in firms located in an intermediate technology developed country By Mariana Lopes; Aurora A.C. Teixeira
  2. An introduction to the system dynamics of technological change the basic tools By Antonelli Cristiano

  1. By: Mariana Lopes (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Aurora A.C. Teixeira (CEFUP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto; INESC Porto)
    Abstract: Open Innovation is a flow of inputs and outputs of knowledge and technology which favours, at the firm level, the acceleration of the innovation process, as well as the establishment and penetration of firms in new markets. This type of innovation incorporates technological innovation from internal and external sources, as well as different ways to access markets. The empirical studies in the area reveal that there is a significant bias in favour of countries of technological frontier, such as the United States, Finland, the Netherlands, Germany or Sweden. The present study aims at covering this gap in literature by examining firms in a country of intermediate technology development – Portugal. Based on 70 innovative firms located in Portugal we found that open innovation is only partially diffused throughout these firms. In addition, open innovation is more widespread in terms of external absorption of knowledge/ technology rather than in terms of knowledge/technology transfer. This result may indicate lack of awareness about the economic potential of making available to third parties the technologies internally created. This may require a different approach to organization/management of R&D, in particular, and of innovation, in general.
    Keywords: Open Innovation; Intermediate technology development; Portugal.
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2009–03
  2. By: Antonelli Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This Handbook presents a systematic attempt to show how building upon the achievements of the economics of innovation, an economic approach to complexity can be elaborated and fruitfully implemented. This introductory chapter articulates the view that innovation is the emergent property of a system characterized by organized complexity. It implements an approach that enables to provide economic foundations to analyzing the incentives of economic action and the notion of organized complexity. In this approach agents retain the typical characteristics of economic actors, including intentional choice and strategic conduct, augmented by the attribution of creativity. Economic agents are able to react to out-ofequilibrium conditions and may try and change both their production and their utility functions. The localized context of action and the web of knowledge interactions and externalities into which each agent is embedded is crucial to make their reaction actually creative, as opposed to adaptive, so as to shape the actual effects of their endogenous efforts to change their technologies and their preferences. In turn, the successful introduction of new localized technologies, changes the structural features of the system and hence the flows of knowledge externalities and interactions. This dynamic loop exhibits the characters of a recursive, non-ergodic and path dependent historic process. This approach enables to move away from the static, lowlevel complexity- of general equilibrium that applies when both technologies and preferences are static, as well as from the random variation of evolutionary thinking, and to grasp the system dynamics of technological change as an endogenous and recurrent process that combines rent-seeking intentionality at the agent levels with the appreciation of the knowledge externalities and interactions that stem from the organized complexity of the structural characters of the system.
    Date: 2009–02

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