nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2006‒09‒11
six papers chosen by
Roberto Fontana
Universita Bocconi

  1. Renascent Entrepreneurship By Stam, E.; Audretsch, D.B.; Meijaard, J.
  2. Starting Anew: Entrepreneurial Intentions and Realizations Subsequent to Business Closure By Schutjens, V.; Stam, E.
  3. University Industry Linkages and UK Science and Innovation Policy By Alan Hughes
  4. Managing intellectual assets within knowledge-based partnerships: Insights from a survey of public laboratories collaborating with industry By John Gabriel Goddard; Marc Isabelle
  5. U.S. Universities' Net Returns from Patenting and Licensing: A Quantile Regression Analysis By Harun Bulut; GianCarlo Moschini
  6. Licensing Strategies of the Enterprising - but Vulnerable - "Intellectual Property" Vendors By Lee Davis

  1. By: Stam, E.; Audretsch, D.B.; Meijaard, J. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: Why should individuals that have exited their firm consider re-entering into entrepreneurship, i.e. become renascent entrepreneurs? According to the logic of economic models of firm dynamics there is no reason to re-enter into entrepreneurship following termination of a previous firm. In contrast, research on nascent entrepreneurship has shown the positive effect of entrepreneurial experience on planning a new firm start. Based on the empirical evidence from a database consisting of ex-entrepreneurs, this study shows that renascent entrepreneurship is a pervasive phenomenon in current society. Especially entrepreneurial human and social capital induce renascent entrepreneurship. In addition, the nature of the firm exit also affects the probability of renascent entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Preferences;Entrepreneurial Skills;Firm Exit;Renascent Entrepreneurship;Economics of Entrepreneurship;
    Date: 2006–03–29
  2. By: Schutjens, V.; Stam, E. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: We know that most businesses fail. But what is not known is to what extent failed ex-entrepreneurs set up in business again. The objective of this article is to explore potential and realized serial entrepreneurship. Based on three disciplines – psychology, labour economics, and the sociology of careers – we formulated propositions to explain (potential) serial entrepreneurship. We tested these propositions empirically with a longitudinal database of 79 businesses that had closed within 5 years after start-up. A large majority of the ex-entrepreneurs maintained entrepreneurial intentions subsequent to business closure, while almost one in four business closures were followed by a new business (serial entrepreneurship). Our results show that the determinants of restart intention (potential serial entrepreneurship) and actual restart realization (realized serial entrepreneurship) are different. Ex-entrepreneurs who are young, who worked full-time in their prior business, and who recall their business management experience positively are likely to harbour restart intentions. Only ‘being located in an urban region’ transpired to have a significant effect on the start of a new business. Although entrepreneurial intentions are a necessary condition for the start of a new business, this study shows that the explanation of entrepreneurial intentions is distinct from the explanation of new business formation subsequent to business closure.
    Keywords: Serial Entrepreneurship;Business Closure;Entrepreneurial Intentions;New Business Formation;The Netherlands;
    Date: 2006–03–29
  3. By: Alan Hughes
    Abstract: This paper assesses the current nature of university-industry links in the UK and US using the recent unique IPC-CBR innovation benchmarking survey of the UK and the US. It argues for a more diverse approach to the complex nature of university-industry links than is currently the case. The paper in addition provides a brief overview of SET policy in the UK locating university-industry links within the overall UK policy framework. It argues for a greater degree of coordination of existing policy levers rather than new initiatives and for an effective use of public procurement in relation to SET policy.
    Keywords: Science and Technology Policy, University Industry Links, UK-US comparisons
    Date: 2006–06
  4. By: John Gabriel Goddard (IMRI (Institut pour le Management de la Recherche et de l’Innovation), Université Paris-Dauphine); Marc Isabelle (CEA & IMRI (Institut pour le Management de la Recherche et de l’Innovation), Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: When public research laboratories and industry meet to produce and exchange knowledge and technologies, they face decisions about how to frame these collaborations to make the best use of each partner’s resources, ensure a productive and fair outcome, and defuse any tensions and conflicts. In this paper we examine these questions through a survey of 130 public laboratories in France. This study contributes new insights into the characteristics of contractual and intellectual property agreements within collaborative R&D settings, which reflect both the strategies adopted by laboratories to manage their intellectual assets and the requirements of their private partners.
    Keywords: university-industry collaborations, knowledge and technology transfer, public-private research partnerships, economics of science, France
    JEL: L24 L30 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2006–07
  5. By: Harun Bulut; GianCarlo Moschini (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD))
    Abstract: In line with the rights and incentives provided by the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, U.S. universities have increased their involvement in patenting and licensing activities through their own technology transfer offices. Only a few U.S. universities are obtaining large returns, however, whereas others are continuing with these activities despite negligible or negative returns. We assess the U.S. universities' potential to generate returns from licensing activities by modeling and estimating quantiles of the distribution of net licensing returns conditional on some of their structural characteristics. We find limited prospects for public universities without a medical school everywhere in their distribution. Other groups of universities (private, and public with a medical school) can expect significant but still fairly modest returns only beyond the 0.9th quantile. These findings call into question the appropriateness of the revenue-generating motive for the aggressive rate of patenting and licensing by U.S. universities.
    Keywords: Bayh-Dole Act, quantile regression, returns to innovation, skewed distributions, technology transfer, university patents. JEL numbers: C13, L31, L33, O31, O32
    Date: 2006–09
  6. By: Lee Davis
    Abstract: This paper investigates in an exploratory manner the licensing strategies pursued by firms whose business model is based on developing and licensing out their intellectual property rights (IPRs). These are not traditional suppliers, since they do not engage in production or commercialization, but focus solely on invention. While considerable anecdotal evidence exists about these IP vendors, there has been no systematic investigation of how they use licensing to appropriate value from their investments in R&D. In this paper, we suggest that the licensing strategies they pursue can be differentiated along two main dimensions: whether the driving force behind the inventive process is “technology push” or “market pull”, and the degree to which the innovative activities carried out by the IP vendor are mutually dependent upon the innovative activities of the other relevant market players. On this basis, four main licensing strategies are identified. We investigate the relative benefits and costs of these four strategies, and the factors affecting licensing choices.
    Keywords: Intellectual property; licensing; strategy
    JEL: O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2006

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