nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2006‒02‒12
ten papers chosen by
Roberto Fontana
Universita Bocconi

  1. One or Many Knowlede Production Functions? Mapping Innovative Activity Using Microdata. By Andrea Conte; Marco Vivarelli
  2. Evolution on the Shoulders of Giants: Entrepreneurship and Firm Survival in the German Laser Industry By Guido Buenstorf
  3. Network and firm antecedents of spin-offs: Motherhooding spin-offs By Manuel Portugal Ferreira; Ana Teresa Tavares; William Hesterly; Sungu Armagan
  4. Networks and heterogeneous performance of cluster firms By Elisa Giuliani
  5. Networks and Innovation : A Survey of Empirical Literature. By Müge Ozman
  6. The Market for Patents in Europe By Alfonso Gambardella; Paola Giuri; Alessandra Luzzi
  7. Merge or Fail? The Determinants of Mergers and Bankruptcies in Switzerland, 1995-2000 By Stefan Buehler; Christian Kaiser; Franz Jaeger
  8. Entry in Pharmaceutical submarkets: A Bayesian Panel Probit Approach By Gianni Amisano; Maria Letizia Giorgetti
  9. Competition Policy and Exit Rates: Evidence from Switzerland By Stefan Buehler; Christian Kaiser; Franz Jaeger
  10. An evolutionary perspective on Internet adoption by retailers in the Netherlands By Ron A. Boschma; Jesse W.J. Weltevreden

  1. By: Andrea Conte; Marco Vivarelli
    Abstract: This paper discusses the determinants of three alternative measures of innovative output by looking at firm's own formal R&D activities and at the acquisition of external technology (TA) in its embodied and disembodied components. These input-output relationships are also discussed by distinguishing between small and large firms and those belonging to low-tech and high-tech sectors. The empirical analysis focuses on the Italian industrial sector over the period 1998-2000, using a subsample of 2,949 firms from the third European Community Innovative Survey (CIS 3). A bivariate probit analysis framework is used to investigate the determinants of product and process innovations, while truncated regressions are used to discuss innovation intensity. This paper also discusses an alternative test procedure that permits an extension of Cragg's test in the analysis of survey data with weighted observations. Results show that R&D is strictly linked to product innovation, while TA is crucial in fostering process innovation; however, both inputs increase a firm's innovative intensity. Significant evidence is also found that small firms and firms belonging to low-tech sectors rely more on the acquisition of external technologies and on cooperation agreements, while larger firms in high-tech sectors rely more on their own formal R&D.
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2006–02
  2. By: Guido Buenstorf
    Abstract: This paper studies 40 years of evolution in the German laser industry to test the generality of evolutionary patterns observed in the U.S. laser industry. Key characteristics found in the U.S. industry are also present in Germany. There is sustained entry into the industry, and neither a shakeout nor first-mover advantages of early entrants are observed. A survival analysis finds that, similar to the U.S. industry, laser firm spin-offs have been systematically more successful than academic startups. Differences in survival and determinants of the spin-off process are traced for alternative kinds of spin-offs, including firms started by serial entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Industry life cycle, submarkets, entrepreneurship, spin-offs, integrating distributors
    JEL: L10 M13 O33
    Date: 2006–01
  3. By: Manuel Portugal Ferreira (Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria); Ana Teresa Tavares (CEMPRE, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); William Hesterly (David Eccles School of Business, The University of Utah); Sungu Armagan (David Eccles School of Business, The University of Utah)
    Abstract: We advance firm and network conditions that are favorable for the gestation of new spin-offs by entrepreneurial employees that exit the mother firm to constitute their own companies. This type of entrepreneurial activity has some unique characteristics. We suggest that spin-offs from certain parent firms have fundamental network benefits that increase their likelihood of survival and success. These benefits accrue on the form of social resources and a unique embeddedness in networks of other offspring and mother firms, and do not require the spin-offs to engage in any direct exchanges with the parent firm. The process which we call 'motherhood' highlights the potential for a mother-progeny and child-child model that promotes entrepreneurial action through spin-offs, and allow us to understand the conditions under which interorganizational networks of firms emerge and thrive as an entrepreneurial process. We conclude that considering a motherhood process, with the characteristics defined in this paper, contributes to the study of entrepreneurship and network evolution.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, spin-offs, motherhood, network benefits
    JEL: M13 D23 D85
    Date: 2006–02
  4. By: Elisa Giuliani
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship existing among the heterogeneous nature of firms in industrial clusters, their structural position in knowledge networks and their performance. Following the rising interest for spatially agglomerated industrial firms and their learning and innovative potential the paper shows empirically that the performance of firms in clusters is related with firm-level knowledge endowments and their position in the knowledge network using firm-level data on three wine clusters.
    Keywords: knowledge networks, clusters, firm performance, evolutionary economics, wine sector
    Date: 2006–01
  5. By: Müge Ozman
    Abstract: Networks are now understood to be an important mechanism to change economic and social outcomes through non-market means, and one of these outcomes is the contribution of networks to innovation and technological change in general. This survey covers the recent literature on networks as far as they have implications for knowledge transfer among actors, innovation and technological change. We present a recent survey of empirical research, covering inter-firm and intra-firm networks, since these are accepted to have the most important impact on knowledge dissemination and innovation. One important conclusion that can be derived from the survey is that, although there exists a tremendous increase in network research, it is still difficult in most cases to draw robust conclusions and generalizable results. Therefore, one of the aims of this survey is to highlight those areas in which some consensus has been achieved in the literature, and others which need more attention and research in the future.
    Date: 2006
  6. By: Alfonso Gambardella; Paola Giuri; Alessandra Luzzi
    Abstract: By using the PatVal-EU dataset we find that the most important determinant of patent licensing is firm size. Patent breadth, value, protection, and other factors suggested by the literature also have an impact, but not as important. In addition, most of these factors affect the willingness to license, but not whether a license actually takes place. We discuss why this suggests that there are transaction costs in the markets for technology. The issue is important because many potential licenses are not licensed suggesting that the markets for technology can be larger, with implied economic benefits.
    Keywords: Licensing, Patent scope, Complementary assets, Firm size, Markets for technology
    Date: 2006–02–09
  7. By: Stefan Buehler (Socioeconomic Institute, University of Zurich); Christian Kaiser (University of St. Gallen); Franz Jaeger (University of St. Gallen)
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of mergers and bankruptcies, using firm level data from the Swiss Business Census and the Dun & Bradstreet exit database for Switzerland (1995-2000). Employing duration analysis, we find considerable differences in the determinants of mergers and bankruptcies, in particular with respect to firm size, location and the impact of macroeconomic conditions. Our results support the notion that mergers are often undertaken to seize growth opportunities.
    Keywords: merger, bankruptcy, failure, survival, exit
    JEL: C41 L10 L20
    Date: 2005–03
  8. By: Gianni Amisano; Maria Letizia Giorgetti
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze entry dynamics in new submarkets of pharma- ceutical companies in the period 1987-1998 in seven countries considered as a single country and on each country separately. In particular we study entry decisions at time t in a new submarket, conditioned on the entrance or non-entrance in a new submarket at time t-1. Our analysis is based on a Bayesian approach which allows us to properly account for hetero- geneity among ?rms. We try to manage the inclusion among regressors of non strictly exogenous variables, which can be correlated with unobserved heterogeneity. Reassuming, the relevant variables are the achieved diver- si?cation indipendently of the size and other strategic variables connected with the attractiveness of each submarket. The unobservable heterogeneity is not explained by the lagged dependent variable but rather by the initial diversi?cation.
  9. By: Stefan Buehler (Socioeconomic Institute, University of Zurich); Christian Kaiser (University of St. Gallen); Franz Jaeger (University of St. Gallen)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on the relation between the intensity of product market competition and the probability of exit. We adopt a natural experiment approach towards analyzing the impact of a tightening of Swiss antitrust legislation on exit probabilities. Based on a sample of more than 68,000 firms from all major sectors of the Swiss economy, we find that the exit probability of nonexporting firms increased significantly, whereas the exit probability of exporting firms remained largely unaffected. Our results support the notion that there is a positive relationship between the intensity of product market competition and the probability of exit.
    Keywords: competition intensity, exit, natural experiment
    JEL: D43 L23 L40
    Date: 2004–03
  10. By: Ron A. Boschma; Jesse W.J. Weltevreden
    Abstract: The paper analyses from an evolutionary perspective how retailers respond and adapt to b2c e-commerce. As such, the paper explores the diversity of behavior of retailers with respect to the adoption of e-commerce. More in particular, it examines empirically the extent to which the adoption of Internet strategies is affected by firm-specific features (e.g., habits of the entrepreneur, routines of firms), network relationships, and geographical proximity. Logistic regression analyses of 643 independent retailers in the Netherlands suggest that geography matters, controlling for other factors. That is, the probability of having an Internet strategy increases significantly when (a) the more knowledge spillovers are locally available; (b) the more demanding local customers are; and (c), the less rivalry is present locally.
    Keywords: evolutionary economics, Internet strategies, retailers, city centres, the Netherlands
    JEL: A12 D21 L81 R00
    Date: 2006–01

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