nep-tid New Economics Papers
on Technology and Industrial Dynamics
Issue of 2005‒10‒15
seven papers chosen by
Roberto Fontana
Universita Bocconi

  1. Advertising, Competition and Entry in Media Industries By CRAMPES, Claude; HARITCHABALET, Carole; JULLIEN, Bruno
  2. What Makes Small and Medium Enterprises Competitive By Piergiuseppe Morone; Giuseppina Testa
  3. Submarkets and the Evolution of Market Structure By Peter Thompson; Steven Klepper
  4. Speculative and Entrepreneurial Behaviour: A Study of Micro-Economic Sustainability in Argentina During the 1990s By Valeria Arza; Paula Español
  5. The Major Role of Clinicians in the Discovery of Off-Label Drug Therapies By DeMonaco, Harold J.; Ali, Ayfer; von Hippel, Eric
  6. Part-Time Entrepreneurship and Wealth Effects: New Evidence from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics By Kameliia Petrova
  7. Product Market Competition and Economic Performance in Canada By Maria Maher; Jay Shaffer

  1. By: CRAMPES, Claude; HARITCHABALET, Carole; JULLIEN, Bruno
    JEL: L13 L82
    Date: 2005–07
  2. By: Piergiuseppe Morone; Giuseppina Testa
    Abstract: : This paper aims at understanding the determinants of Italian small- and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness. Having in mind the fact that the Italian economic system relies substantially on small firms which have managed to stay competitive by adopting strategies such as the creation of well-integrated social and institutional clusters (the so-called industrial districts) or specialising in the production of quality goods (the so called made in Italy). However, the growing competing pressure coming from the Far East has rendered this production system vulnerable, challenging its internationally competitiveness. By developing a conceptual model we identify the sources of competitiveness of Italian SMEs. The model is tested using a unique database which collects data, for the year 2004, over a sample of 2,600 SMEs.
    Keywords: SMEs, competitiveness, innovation, interval regression, ordered probit
    JEL: L1 O31 C24
    Date: 2005–09
  3. By: Peter Thompson (Department of Economics, Florida International University); Steven Klepper (Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University)
    Abstract: We construct a model of industry evolution in which the central force for change is the creation and destruction of submarkets. Firms expand when they are able to exploit new opportunities that arrive in the form of submarkets; they contract and ultimately exit when the submarkets in which they operate are destroyed. This simple framework can transparently explain a wide range of well-known regularities about industry dynamics, most notably the subtle relationships between size, age, growth, and survival. Data on the laser industry, where submarkets are prominent, further illustrate the ability of the model to explain distinctive patterns in the evolution of industries and firms.
    Keywords: Spinoffs, firm growth, survival, firm age, market structure, industry evolution, technological change
    JEL: L1 O33
    Date: 2003–12
  4. By: Valeria Arza (SPRU, University of Sussex); Paula Español (EHESS, PSE (Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques))
    Abstract: This paper sheds light on microeconomic sustainability after complete financial liberalisation was implemented in Argentina during the 1990s. Inspired by Keynes and Minsky, we estimate an investment model that accounts for financial constraints using panel data for Argentina during the 1990s. The main conclusion of the study is that there was an increase in speculative behaviour which was unconnected to entrepreneurial behaviour based on investment in fixed assets. Over the decade, the number of speculative firms increased. Moreover, these firms increased their debt burden, particularly with financial institutions. However, they did not use these funds to invest in fixed assets.
    Keywords: speculation, investment, financial constraints, firm behaviour, micro sustainability, Minsky, Argentina
    JEL: C23 D21 O16 O54
    Date: 2005–10–10
  5. By: DeMonaco, Harold J.; Ali, Ayfer; von Hippel, Eric
    Abstract: Objective: To determine, through a review of the medical literature and author contact, the role of clinicians in the discovery of off label use of Food and Drug Administration approved prescription drugs. Data Sources: The literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1999-December 2003). Additional sources accessed included the U.S. Patent Office and Micromedex, Thompson Scientific and Healthcare, Inc. Data Synthesis: A survey of new therapeutic uses for New Molecular Entity drugs approved in 1998 was conducted for the subsequent 5 years of commercial availability. During that time period, a total of 144 new applications were identified in a computerized search of the literature for the 29 new drugs approved in 1998. Literature and patent searches were conducted to identify the first report of each new application. Authors of the seminal articles were contacted via survey and telephone interview to determine whether they were in fact the originators of the new applications. If they were, examinations of article contents and author surveys were used to explore whether each new application was discovered via clinical practice that was independent of pharmaceutical company or university research (field discovery) or whether the discovery was made by or with the involvement of pharmaceutical firm or university researchers (central discovery). Conclusions: Post-NDA discoveries of new, off-label uses for new drugs were present in 22 of the 29 drugs in our sample. We found that 59% (85/144) of the drug therapy innovations in our sample were discovered by practicing clinicians via field discovery. The major role of clinicians in the discovery of new, off-label drug therapies has not been previously documented or explored. We propose that this finding has important regulatory and health policy implications.
    Keywords: off label drug use, prescription drugs, new molecular entities, lead users,
    Date: 2005–09–23
  6. By: Kameliia Petrova (Boston College)
    Abstract: Why do people become part-time entrepreneurs? Are they financially constrained? Previous studies on entrepreneurship do not deal with part- timers. In contrast, a recent survey on the establishment of new businesses reports that 80 percent of entrepreneurs also hold outside paid jobs. In this study, I develop a model of entrepreneurial choice in which individuals make a joint decision of how much capital to invest and what proportion of time to spend in business. The outside wage is inversely related to both time in business and capital for part-timer entrepreneurs. I also show that wealth and ability are positively correlated. To evaluate wealth effects, I use data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics. I instrument wealth with month-to-month changes in the Standard & Poor 500 stock market index and I find that wealth does not affect the propensity to become an entrepreneur. If individuals know their entrepreneurial ability ahead of time and expect financial difficulties, they will accumulate funds before making entrepreneurial decisions. Wealth is shown to be less significant for starting new businesses.
    Keywords: Start-ups, Entrepreneurship, Liquidity Constraints
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2005–10–10
  7. By: Maria Maher; Jay Shaffer
    Abstract: This paper examines the strength of product market competition and economic performance in Canada and discusses way in which the institutional framework governing competition policy could be improved. Competitive forces are comparatively strong and administrative and economic regulations inhibiting competition are amongst the lowest in the OECD countries. However, Canada’s regulated conduct doctrine exempts anti-competitive behaviour when required by regulation, and thus significant parts of the economy remain shielded from the competition law. This is a particular problem with provincial government regulation. Restrictions on internal trade also continue to exist, and implementation of the Agreement on Internal Trade is less effective than it could be. More attention needs to be focussed on removing those regulations that restrain competition, particularly in professional services. In network industries, competition has largely been absent in the electricity sector. While it is widely recognised that reforms are necessary, those undertaken in the past have mainly been aimed at bringing in private-sector investment, while avoiding full competition in generation and in retail markets. Canada has more significant restrictions on foreign ownership than almost any other OECD country, notably in airlines, telecommunications and broadcasting, and their removal could improve performance in these sectors. <P>Concurrence sur les marchés de produits et performance économique au Canada Ce document examine la puissance de la concurrence dans les marchés de produits et de la performance économique au Canada. Il envisage aussi les moyens par lesquels pourrait être amélioré le cadre institutionnel qui gouverne les politiques de la concurrence. La vigueur des forces concurrentielles est comparativement élevée au Canada et les régulations inhibant la concurrence sont parmi les plus faibles de la zone de l’OCDE. Cependant, le code canadien de conduite réglementé exonère les comportements anticoncurrentiels lorsqu’ils sont couverts par une réglementation, de sorte que certains pans importants de l’économie restent non couverts par le droit de la concurrence. Ce problème est particulièrement aigu dans le cas des réglementations sous autorités provinciales. Des restrictions continuent de limiter les échanges provinciaux, et la mise en œuvre de l’Accord sur le commerce intérieur est moins effective qu’elle pourrait l’être. Il conviendrait de chercher plus activement à supprimer les réglementations qui freinent la concurrence dans les professions libérales. Dans les industries de réseaux, la concurrence a été pratiquement absente dans le secteur de l’électricité. S’il existe un large consensus sur la nécessité de réformes, celles qui ont été entreprises par le passé ont eu pour objectif principal d’encourager l’investissement du secteur privé, tout en évitant l’ouverture intégrale à la concurrence de secteurs comme la production d’électricité et la vente au détail. Le Canada connaît aussi un plus grand nombre de restrictions significatives concernant les intérêts étrangers que presque tous les autres pays de l’OCDE, notamment dans les domaines du transport aérien, des télécommunications et de la télédiffusion. Leur élimination pourrait stimuler les performances dans ces secteurs.
    Keywords: market structure, structure de marché, network industries, industrie de réseau, competition, Canada, Canada, concurrence, productivity and growth, productivité et croissance, antitrust law, loi anti-trust, regulatory policies, politique de réglementation
    JEL: K21 K23 L11 L16 L40 L43 O51
    Date: 2005–03–30

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