nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2023‒08‒14
four papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Globalisation of sports By Dilger, Alexander
  2. Injury Risk, Concussions, Race, and Pay in the NFL By Keefer, Quinn; Kniesner, Thomas J.
  3. Successful Replication of "The Long-Run Effects of Sports Club Vouchers for Primary School Children (2022)" By Bacon, Felix; Bello, Abdel-Hamid; Brown, Myriam; Morris, Todd; Renée, Laëtitia
  4. Does Unfairness Hurt Women? The Effects of Losing Unfair Competitions By Stefano Piasenti; Marica Valente; Roel van Veldhuizen; Gregor Pfeifer

  1. By: Dilger, Alexander
    Abstract: Globalisation affects not only politics and the economy, but also sport, which has become significantly more international, competitive and financially powerful. This is particularly advantageous for most consumers or spectators. Especially top athletes benefit, while not so good athletes can suffer from the greater competitive pressure. The same applies to event organisers and the mass media, from which the best and largest in particular benefit. Poorer nations can more easily enter and win international competitions, although richer nations retain advantages. All in all, globalisation of sports is not a zero-sum game, but the benefits outweigh the costs.
    Keywords: Competition, Globalisation, Media, Olympics, Sports
    JEL: F69 L83 Z20
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Keefer, Quinn (California State University San Marcos); Kniesner, Thomas J. (Claremont Graduate University)
    Abstract: We make two main contributions to the literature on work-related injury risk and economic outcomes in the context of American professional football. One is to examine an increasingly important specific injury, concussions, and compare its subsequent economic effects to those of other types of football injuries. Our other contribution is to study the role of race in understanding injury risk and severity and their resulting economic consequences, which has been overlooked in previous sports injury research. Using a specific position, tight ends, which allows conditioning on fine-grained relevant measures of player demographics, playing time, and performance, we find that whether a player continues to play NFL football from year to year is affected by type of injury and the player's race. We calculate that the average ex post loss in annual compensation from a concussion is about 7%. Moreover, the effect of games missed due to concussion on continued employment is triple that of other injuries. Being white positively affects length of playing career independent of the measured productivity of the players involved. The racial gap in career length is approximately equal to the effect of an additional game missed from concussion. With respect to heterogeneity in the effects of injuries, both concussions and other injury types affect ex post economic outcomes equally for white and nonwhite players. Both injuries and race affect compensation solely through their effects on career length.
    Keywords: work-related injuries, concussions, race, pay, NFL, tight ends, panel data
    JEL: D81 J31 J81 Z21 Z22 C23
    Date: 2023–07
  3. By: Bacon, Felix; Bello, Abdel-Hamid; Brown, Myriam; Morris, Todd; Renée, Laëtitia
    Abstract: Marcus, Siedler and Ziebarth (2022 American Economic Journal: Economic Policy) examine the long-run health effects of a universal sports-club voucher program that was introduced in Saxony for primary school children in 2009. In 2018, the authors designed a survey that targeted the affected cohorts and nearby cohorts in Saxony and two neighboring states, and use a differences-in-differences identification strategy that exploits variation across states and cohorts in policy exposure. The authors document that treated individuals have knowledge of the program and recall receiving and redeeming the vouchers at higher rates, but find no effects on any health outcomes or behaviors. We successfully reproduce the main results of the paper exactly using data available in the paper's replication package and new Stata and R code. We also verify the robustness of the results using different outcomes, different control variables, different sample restrictions and different inference methods.
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Stefano Piasenti (HU Berlin); Marica Valente (University of Innsbruck); Roel van Veldhuizen (Lund University); Gregor Pfeifer (University of Sydney)
    Abstract: How do men and women differ in their persistence after experiencing failure in a competitive environment? We tackle this question by combining a large online experiment (N=2, 086) with machine learning. We find that when losing is unequivocally due to merit, both men and women exhibit a significant decrease in subsequent tournament entry. However, when the prior tournament is unfair, i.e., a loss is no longer necessarily based on merit, women are more discouraged than men. These results suggest that transparent meritocratic criteria may play a key role in preventing women from falling behind after experiencing a loss.
    Keywords: competitiveness; gender; fairness; machine learning; online experiment;
    JEL: C90 D91 J16 C14
    Date: 2023–07–14

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