nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2023‒05‒01
six papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. The Football World Cup: the good deal? By Luc Arrondel; Richard Duhautois
  2. Environmental matters in sport: sustainable research in the academy By Tim Breitbarth; Brian P Mccullough; Andrea Collins; Anna Gerke; David M Herold
  3. Tournament Incentives Affect Perceived Stress and Hormonal Stress Responses By Thomas Dohmen; Ingrid M.T. Rohde; Tom Stolp
  4. Rooting for the Same Team: On the Interplay between Political and Social Identities in the Formation of Social Ties By Nicolás Ajzenman; Bruno Ferman; Pedro C. Sant’Anna
  5. Schedule Situations and their Cooperative Games. By Léa Munich
  6. The punctuality stability of the Nash equilibrium: the advantage of a late player in potential and aggregative games By Vasily V. Gusev

  1. By: Luc Arrondel (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Richard Duhautois (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université, CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)
    Abstract: The "jewel" in FIFA's crown and its main "asset" remains the World Cup. Established in 1928, it has been held every four years since the 1930 tournament hosted and won by Uruguay among 13 teams. Qatar will host 32 teams, but more than 200 teams from all six continental confederations have participated in the qualifying rounds. After the Second World War, the World Cup experienced a very strong growth in terms of broadcasting (from 1966), sporting notoriety, social stakes and economic activity (especially from the 1970s). The competition has become a global event, benefiting from a planetary diffusion. Not only has the World Cup become FIFA's main source of funding, but many national federations and governments are interested in hosting the event to benefit from the potential social and economic benefits.
    Abstract: Le « joyau » de la couronne de la FIFA et son principal « actif » demeure la Coupe du monde. Créée en 1928, elle a lieu tous les quatre ans depuis le tournoi de 1930 organisé et remporté par l'Uruguay parmi treize prétendants. Le Qatar accueillera 32 équipes, mais plus de 200 formations appartenant aux six confédérations continentales ont participé aux phases éliminatoires. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, la Coupe du monde va connaitre une très forte croissance en termes de diffusion (à partir de 1966), de notoriété sportive, d'enjeu social et d'activité économique (surtout à partir des années 1970). La compétition est devenue un évènement global, bénéficiant d'une diffusion planétaire. La Coupe du monde est non seulement devenue la principale source de financement de la FIFA, mais un grand nombre de fédérations nationales et de gouvernements souhaitent organiser cet événement pour bénéficier d'éventuelles retombées en matière sociales et économiques.
    Keywords: Economy, Geopolitics, Television, World Cup, Coupe du monde, Economie, FIFA, Géoéconomie, Télévision
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Tim Breitbarth (Cologne Business School); Brian P Mccullough (Texas A&M University [College Station]); Andrea Collins (Cardiff University); Anna Gerke (Audencia Business School); David M Herold (QUT - Queensland University of Technology [Brisbane])
    Abstract: Research Question: Climate change continues to be a critical issue that impacts the ways we produce and consume sport. The extent to which sport responds to climate change (e.g. minimizing carbon emissions, adapting to climate impacts) will become more dire. Thus, it is crucial for sport to respond now to address current and emerging sustainability challenges. The popularity of sport can create opportunities to promote and influence individual behaviour change and drive organizational efforts to be environmentally sustainable. Research Methods: The sport management academy is currently limited in its efforts to highlight, examine, and educate industry and students on the issues raised due to changes in the natural environment and the impact on the sport sector. The five articles included in this special issue aim to begin to bridge this gap. Results and Findings: Sport is not inherently sustainable or unsustainable. We introduce this special issue to provide an overview of the current and future environmental challenges in sport management. Implications: We encourage sport researchers to critically assess existing practices and enhance the management knowledge that not only influences the world of sport and sport managers, but also policymakers and sport fans on mitigating the impacts of climate change. We hope the following articles spark ideas, discussions, and further research projects.
    Keywords: Ecology environmental sustainability climate change global warming sport management, Ecology, environmental sustainability, climate change, global warming, sport management
    Date: 2023–01–31
  3. By: Thomas Dohmen; Ingrid M.T. Rohde; Tom Stolp
    Abstract: We conduct a laboratory experiment among male participants to investigate whether rewarding schemes that depend on work performance – in particular, tournament incentives – induce more stress than schemes that are independent of performance - fixed payment scheme. Stress is measured over the entire course of the experiment at both the hormonal and psychological level. Hormonal stress responses are captured by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Psychological stress responses are measured by selfreported feelings of stress and primary appraisals. We find that tournament incentives induce a stress response whereas a fixed payment does not induce stress. This stress response does not differ significantly across situations in which winners and losers of the tournament are publically announced and situations in which this information remains private. Biological and psychological stress measures are positively correlated, i.e. increased levels of cortisol are associated with stronger feelings of stress. Nevertheless, neither perceived psychological stress nor elevated cortisol levels in a previous tournament predict a subsequent choice between tournaments and fixed payment schemes, indicating that stress induced by incentives schemes is not a relevant criterion for sorting decisions in our experiment. Finally, we find that cortisol levels are severely elevated at the beginning of the experiment, suggesting that participants experience stress in anticipation of the experiment per se, potentially due to uncertainties associated with the unknown lab situation. We call this the novelty effect.
    Keywords: Incentives, stress, cortisol, sorting, laboratory experiment
    JEL: D23 D87 D91 M52
    Date: 2023–03
  4. By: Nicolás Ajzenman (McGill University); Bruno Ferman (São Paulo School of Economics - FGV); Pedro C. Sant’Anna (São Paulo School of Economics - FGV)
    Abstract: We study the interplay between political and other social identities in the formation of social ties in a setting of intense affective polarization. We created fictional accounts on Twitter that signaled their political preference for one of the two leading candidates in the Brazilian 2022 Presidential election, their preference for a Brazilian football club, or both. We interpret preference for a football club as an affective dimension of identity. The bots randomly followed Twitter accounts with congruent and incongruent identities across these two dimensions, and we computed the proportion of follow-backs and blocks they received. Both dimensions of identity are relevant in forming ties, but the effect of sharing a political identity is significantly greater. Moreover, affective identity becomes substantially less relevant when information about political identity is available, indicating that political identity can overshadow other dimensions of identity. Still, shared affective identity has a positive effect in fostering ties even among politically opposite individuals. This result suggests that shared identities such as preference for a football club have the potential to reduce politically induced societal divides, despite the evidence that affective polarization may diminish this effect.
    Keywords: Social Identity; Affective Polarization; Brazilian Elections; Social Media.
    JEL: D72 D91 C93 Z20
    Date: 2023–04
  5. By: Léa Munich
    Abstract: We introduce a new problem of cost allocation resulting from a scheduling problem, and we study it by a new class of cooperative games, the schedule situations and the associated games. In a schedule situation several players share a non-rival common-pool infrastructure. Its consumption is possible during several periods. The consumption needs of each player are described by the set of minimal schedules satisfying this player. The use of this infrastructure induces a fixed per-period cost normalized to one unit. Therefore, one objective is to minimize the overall total number of consumption time periods in order to satisfy all players. For this purpose, the schedule game gives for each coalition of players the minimal number of time periods needed to satisfy the consumption needs of all its members. We provide a characterization of the class of schedule games: a game is a schedule game if and only if it is monotonic, sub-additive, integer-valued and all nonempty coalitions have positive worths. Moreover, specific schedule games can be linked to other classes of operational research games: the airport games and the carpool games. We also introduce Equal pooling allocations, which in some cases coincide with the Shapley value. Next we develop a natural sufficient condition to guarantee the non-emptiness of the core of a schedule game. Finally, we provide an application of the the schedule situations and the associated games to the allocation of cost of the mail carrier route in France.
    Keywords: RSchedule, OR-game, Cost allocation, Equal pooling allocations, Core.
    JEL: C71 L87
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Vasily V. Gusev (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: If all players in a game employ Nash-equilibrium strategies, then no single player benefits from changing their strategy alone. In real games however, some players may intentionally arrive late and get a payoff greater than at the equilibrium. To wit, it sometimes pays to wait for competitors to announce their prices and then set the price for one’s own product. The motivation for intentional tardiness is the advantage of making the last move. Can it be arranged so that no player arrives in the game late intentionally? Responding to this challenge, we suggest forming a punctually stable Nash-equilibrium strategy profile. In this study, we investigate whether such a strategy profile exists in potential, aggregative, and symmetric games. What is remarkable about this study is that in some game-theoretical settings all-player punctuality can be achieved without penalizing late arrivals.
    Keywords: Nash equilibrium, punctuality stability, potential games, aggregative games, symmetric games
    JEL: C70 C72 C79
    Date: 2023

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