nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒31
four papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Feedback, Gender, and Choking under Pressure: Evidence from Alpine Skiing By Christoph Buehren; Martin Gschwend; Alex Krumer
  2. Inside the NBA Bubble: How Black Players Performed Better without Fans By Caselli, Mauro; Falco, Paolo; Somekh, Babak
  3. Outil ImpactsEvénement : calcul d’impact et préconisations By Céline Vial
  4. Number 19: Another Victim of the COVID‐19 Pandemic? By Roger, Patrick; D’Hondt, Catherine; Plotkina, Daria; Hoffmann, Arvid

  1. By: Christoph Buehren (Ruhr-University Bochum); Martin Gschwend (University of St. Gallen); Alex Krumer (Molde University College)
    Abstract: In alpine skiing competitions, one of the coaches of the participating countries sets the course. This may provide an advantage, but it may also exert higher pressure on the racers. We analyze 40,150 men’s and 36,968 women’s performances from all competitions in alpine skiing’s Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Super Giant disciplines that took place in the World Cups, World Championships, and Olympic Games between the 2001-02 and 2017-2018 seasons. We compare the performance of racers when competing on a course that was set by their compatriot to the performance of the same racers in the same season when the course was set by a coach from another country. Having a compatriot course setter only has an effect in the second (and decisive) run of the most technical discipline Slalom. We find that men fail significantly more often to complete their run when their compatriots set the course, whereas women fail significantly less in the same situation. The most likely drivers of our results relate to gender differences in response to feedback and choking under pressure in skill-based tasks.
    Keywords: Alpine skiing; choking under pressure; gender differences; panel data
    JEL: C33 C93 D91 J16 J24 Z20
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Caselli, Mauro; Falco, Paolo; Somekh, Babak
    Abstract: In the NBA, predominantly Black players play in front of predominantly non-Black fans. Using the 'NBA bubble', a natural experiment induced by COVID-19, we show that the performance of Black players improved significantly with the absence of fans vis-à-vis White players. This is consistent with Black athletes being negatively affected by racist pressure from mostly non-Black audiences. We dispel several alternative hypotheses. Beyond hurting individual players, fans' behavior causes significant economic damage to the NBA by lowering the quality of the game.
    Keywords: discrimination,harassment,racism,performance,basketball,NBA,COVID-19
    JEL: D91 J15 J71 Z22
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Céline Vial (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement, IFCE - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation [Saumur], Pôle développement innovation et recherche - Institut Français du Cheval et de l'Equitation)
    Abstract: L'équitation est actuellement le 4ème sport national et la pratique en compétition s'est largement développée. La tenue de ces événements nécessite une organisation importante et on peut donc s'interroger sur les impacts qu'ils génèrent pour les territoires qui les accueillent. Au cours de ces dix dernières années, dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche associant l'Institut français du Cheval et de l'Equitation (IFCE), l'Institut National de Recherche en Agronomie et en Environnement (INRAE) et le Centre de Droit et d'Economie du Sport (CDES) de limoges, des études d'impacts ont été menées sur des événements équestres sportifs, pour mieux cerner les enjeux liés à ces manifestations. Les retombées économiques, sociales et environnementales ont ainsi été analysées. Ces résultats ont permis de mettre au point l'outil de simulation ImpactsEvénements.
    Keywords: Préconisation
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Roger, Patrick; D’Hondt, Catherine (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/LFIN, Belgium); Plotkina, Daria; Hoffmann, Arvid
    Abstract: Conscious selection is the mental process by which lottery players select numbers nonran- domly. In this paper, we show that the number 19, which has been heard, read, seen, and googled countless times since March 2020, has become significantly less popular among Belgian lottery players after the World Health Organization named the disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 “COVID-19”. We argue that the reduced popularity of the number 19 is due to its negative association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study tri- angulates evidence from field data from the Belgian National Lottery and survey data from a nationally representative sample of 500 Belgian individuals. The field data indicate that the number 19 has been played significantly less frequently since March 2020. However, a potential limitation of the field data is that an unknown proportion of players selects num- bers randomly through the “Quick Pick” computer system. The survey data do not suf- fer from this limitation and reinforce our previous findings by showing that priming an increase in the salience of COVID-19 prior to the players’ selection of lottery numbers reduces their preference for the number 19. The effect of priming is concentrated amongst those with high superstitious beliefs, further supporting our explanation for the reduced popularity of the number 19 during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: Games of chance ; Lotteries ; Conscious selection ; COVID-19 ; Availability heuristic
    Date: 2022–07–01

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