nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒26
four papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Pitch Call Discrimination in Major League Baseball: The Effect on the Observed Performance and the Salaries By Reio Tanji
  2. Extending the Zero-Sum Gains Data Envelopment Analysis Model By Thanasis Bouzidis; Giannis Karagiannis
  3. International Assortative Matching in the European Labor Market By Thomas Peeters; Jan C. van Ours
  4. Is the NFL's franchise tag fair to players? By Darwin Zhou

  1. By: Reio Tanji (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This paper identifies discrimination in the professional baseball league in the United States. We consider players, umpires, and team managers as employees, middle managers, and employers in general workplaces. Using huge pitch-bypitch tracking data of the Major League Baseball reveals that umpires from North America favor players with the same region when a pitcher from North America and a batter from other regions are facing. The impact of this is dramatic: players from other regions lose their chances to hit by the unfair pitch call, which values to loss of about $130,000 for in three years.
    Keywords: sports, discrimination, in-group bias, baseball
    JEL: D91 J01
    Date: 2022–08
  2. By: Thanasis Bouzidis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia); Giannis Karagiannis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia)
    Abstract: In this paper, we adapt the ZSG-DEA model to the case of a reverse output, whose larger (smaller) values reflect lower (higher) achievements. Then, we introduce the zero-sum reverse output redistribution strategies, state the resulting Target’s Assessment Theorem for both the proportional and the equal expansion strategy, and confirm that the Benchmarks’ Contribution Equality Theorem is also applicable to these cases. We also apply the ZSG-DEA model with a forward and a reverse output to estimate respectively teams’ offensive and defensive efficiency in Greek premier soccer league.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Zero-Sum Gains (ZSG); Output Interdependency; Forward/Reverse Fixed-Sum Output; Offensive/Defensive Efficiency; Soccer Teams
    JEL: Z2 C14 C61 L83
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Thomas Peeters (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Jan C. van Ours (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: We investigate whether national borders within Europe hinder the assortative matching of workers to firms in a high skilled labor market. We characterize worker productivity as the ability to contribute to physical output and define firm productivity as the capacity to transform physical output into revenues. We rank workers and firms according to their individual productivity estimates and study the ensuing rank correlation to gauge the degree of assortative matching within and across countries. We find strong evidence for positive assortative matching at the national level, and even more so at the international level. This suggests national borders do not prevent workers and firm from pursuing profitable complementarities in production.
    Keywords: Assortative matching, international worker mobility, football managers
    JEL: M51 J63 J24 Z22
    Date: 2022–09–01
  4. By: Darwin Zhou
    Abstract: There has been a consistent criticism over the past decade of the NFL franchise tag's monetary limitations due to its biased institutions in favor of the team rather than the player. But the question whether the NFL's franchise tag is fair or unfair to players has never been systematically studied. In this paper, I investigate the effects of NFL players' contract extensions when on a franchise tag compared to when they are not and analyze them through statistical and economic lens. Through my research, I find that indeed the current franchise tag designation is unfair to players when it comes to contract extension. I then propose a solution to remedy this unfairness, that is, removing the opportunity to franchise tag players for multiple years, and adding an option for the player to either test free agency but receive zero pay until they settle on a contract (the team can also match the offer) or sign the franchise tag, to provide more flexibility for the player and the team.
    Date: 2022–08

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