nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒12
four papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Demand for TV broadcasts of UEFA Champions League games in Danish television - The impact of uncertainty of outcome, stardom, and local heroes By Budzinski, Oliver; Feddersen, Arne; Kunz-Kaltenhäuser, Philipp
  2. Women's representation in the management and supervisory bodies of sports organizations in Morocco: Case of soccer sports structures By Chaymaa Lotfy; Yasmina Bennani Bennis
  3. Division Play and Outcome Uncertainty in Sports Leagues By Young Hoon Lee; Rodney Fort
  4. Competition and Risk-Taking By Oliver Gürtler; Lennart Struth; Max Thon

  1. By: Budzinski, Oliver; Feddersen, Arne; Kunz-Kaltenhäuser, Philipp
    Abstract: There are noticeable conceptual differences between competing concepts for organizing the highest level of European Football. One major conceptual controversy is concerned with the question whether fans have a stronger preference for (more) games between the top teams over a broad participation of less well-known clubs representing more of the regions in Europe or vice versa. Since sports economics theory offers explanations for both views, this paper takes an empirical approach and analyzes revealed fan preferences in a market outside of the Big-5 leagues. It examines the impact of uncertainty of outcome, market value as well as local heroes (domestic players & teams) as determinants of demand in national TV in Denmark. It uses representative panel data of national TV demand for UEFA Champions League games in Denmark from 2006/07-2018/19. We estimate a semi-logarithmic OLS regression model with team fixed-effects where the dependent variable is the natural logarithm of the average TV audience of UCL matches broadcasted in Denmark. We find that the presence of superstar clubs as measured by accumulated market value of players increases broadcast audience significantly, whereas the number of superstar players in a game did not. Matches including Danish clubs (domestic clubs) as well as the number of Danish players on a team's roster (local hero players) show no robust effect on TV audience. Uncertainty of outcome increases TV demand in our model, supporting the UOH for TV audiences and furthering the discussion around diverging preferences between stadium attendance and TV demand.
    Keywords: sport broadcasting demand,UEFA Champions League,European Super League,uncertainty of outcome,league management,superstars,local heroes,European football,soccer
    JEL: Z20 L83 D47
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Chaymaa Lotfy (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca]); Yasmina Bennani Bennis (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca])
    Abstract: The study of female representation in traditional male sports structures has allowed us to learn about the level of involvement of women in leadership positions in soccer in Morocco. The main objective of our research is to understand the role of women and the obstacles that prevent them from a better integration in the positions of responsibility in the sports environment. To study the discrimination of women in access to decision-making bodies, and the barriers that prevent them from easily passing through the decision-making processes. We distributed 50 questionnaires and interviewed women (N = 4) who currently hold senior positions in the field of sport. The analysis of the data shows that women are likely to experience problems in sectors that have not reached a certain critical mass of women and as long as they are a minority in the decision-making spheres within a sports sector, they may encounter obstacles. Thus, the study shows that this low presence is due to the presence of prejudices of women with a traditional vision, the lack of motivation and the weight of family and professional obligations. In the end, we can deduce that the social environment as well as the cultural level diminish the gap that can exist between men and women and allows both of them to have an almost equal access to the sports environment in general and to the positions of responsibility in particular. This work is relevant in the search for measures that promote the accessibility of women in the decision-making process to develop and promote the female component in sport.
    Abstract: L'étude de la représentation féminine dans des structures sportives traditionnellement dites masculines nous a permis de nous renseigner sur le niveau d'implication des femmes dans les postes de direction en Football au Maroc. L'objectif principal de notre recherche est de comprendre le rôle des femmes et les obstacles qui les gênent pour une meilleure intégration dans les postes de responsabilité en milieu sportif. Nous voulons étudier la discrimination des femmes pour accéder aux instances de décisions, et les barrières qui les entravent pour participer au processus décisionnel. Nous avons distribué 50 questionnaires et interviewé les femmes (N = 4) qui détiennent aujourd'hui des postes haut placés dans le domaine du sport. L'analyse des données fait apparaître que les femmes sont susceptibles de vivre des problèmes dans des secteurs qui n'ont pas atteint une certaine masse critique (de nombre de femmes) ; tant qu'elles seront minoritaires dans les sphères de décision au sein d'un secteur sportif, elles pourront rencontrer des obstacles. Ainsi, l'étude montre que cette faible présence est due à l'existence de préjugés des femmes elles-mêmes avec une vision traditionaliste, à leur manque de motivation et au poids des obligations familiales et professionnelles. Enfin, nous pouvons déduire que le milieu social ainsi que le niveau culturel diminuent l'écart qu'il peut y avoir entre hommes et femmes et permet ainsi de faciliter aux deux de manière quasi égale, l'accès au milieu sportif en général et aux postes de responsabilité en particulier. Ce travail puise sa pertinence dans la recherche des mesures qui favorisent l'accessibilité des femmes au processus décisionnel pour développer et promouvoir le volet sportif féminin.
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Young Hoon Lee (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul); Rodney Fort (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: This paper offers a model of the impact of division play on outcome uncertainty (OU) holding the level of competitive balance (CB) constant, that is, OU/CB. Previous work has focused almost entirely on CB. The model is based on numerical analysis to demonstrate the impacts of league transition to division play on OU/CB. Marginal effects of schedule imbalance, division strength, and the number of divisions on OU/CB are determined using regression on the numerical anlaysis results. Fitted vlaues of OU/CB from applying the estimated model coefficients to actual MLB data, as that league moved from no divisions through episodes of 2 and 3 divisions are compared to estimates of OU/CB on the same data using now well-established unbiased estimators of both OU and CB. The results are quite close, suggesting the model provides important insights for league policy makers and outside analysts about the neglected issue of league policy impacts on OU and, more specifically, how they happen as a result of schedule imbalance and division strength.
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Oliver Gürtler (University of Cologne); Lennart Struth (University of Cologne); Max Thon (University of Cologne)
    Abstract: In many situations, agents take risks by choosing an action that increases their performance immediately, but that potentially leads to a large loss. The current paper studies how such risk-taking behavior depends on the level of competition that the agents face. We study a tournament model and we find that more intense competition, measured by the number of competitors as well as their relative standing, induces agents to take higher risks. We use a rich panel data set on professional biathlon competitions as well as survey data from professional biathletes to confirm the model predictions. Finally, we discuss managerial implications.
    Keywords: Risk-taking, competition, tournament, incentives, biathlon
    JEL: M51 M52 Z22
    Date: 2022–08

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