nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒17
three papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. A turning point? Evaluating the impact of the 2019 FIFA Women World Cup in France on sports' clubs in host cities By Guillaume Bodet; Cécile Ottogalli-Mazzacavallo; Aurélie Épron; Virginie Nicaise
  2. Fairer Chess: A Reversal of Two Opening Moves in Chess Creates Balance Between White and Black By Brams, Steven J.; Ismail, Mehmet S.
  3. Main well-being factors in tourism context : an application to active sport tourism By Laurence Graillot

  1. By: Guillaume Bodet (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Cécile Ottogalli-Mazzacavallo (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Aurélie Épron (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Virginie Nicaise (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: Aim and objectives The impact and legacy of major sport events remain an important issue, for public and sport decision-makers, local communities as well as for the academic community (Preuss, 2015). This question is particularly important as existing knowledge does not universally support strong impact and legacies (Thompson et al., 2019), and that sport events are intrinsically extremely diverse and are hosted in similarly diverse context and locations (Spaaij, 2009). One growing objective, and thus justification, for organising sporting events relates to the social impact/legacy they can have (Chalip, 2008). For this reason, and responding to a call from the Local Organising Committee of the FIFA WWC France 2019, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the event on sports clubs – football and non-football in France, which is one component of event legacy (Preuss, 2019). The event studied is particularly interesting considering that women's sporting events have been understudied and that women's football have been rapidly developing in terms of participation, image and media attention (Hallmann, 2012). Methodology The methodology followed a two-phase process. First, a questionnaire was conveniently administrated to sport clubs of the 9 hosting and 1 non-hosting city. The main goal was to characterize the situation of women and the club's policy regarding women's participation. The sample includes 96 clubs, comprising 17 football clubs. The second step based on phone interviews with club's board members, aimed to evaluate the WWC's specific impact on their club. The convenient sample is made of 60 clubs, comprising 3 football and 3 non-football clubs in each of the 10 cities. Findings The phase-1 results showed that only a minority of clubs had a formal engagement towards the promotion of women sports, but half of them declared having dedicated actions to promote gender equality. Overall, the phase-2 results indicate that although the event was very well received in the host cities it did not have any perceived impact on non-football clubs. If football clubs estimate that the event changed images and perceptions of women's football, they rarely observed an impact in their club, mainly through the arrival of few (
    Date: 2021–10–27
  2. By: Brams, Steven J.; Ismail, Mehmet S.
    Abstract: Unlike tic-tac-toe or checkers, in which optimal play leads to a draw, it is not known whether optimal play in chess ends in a win for White, a win for Black, or a draw. But after White moves first in chess, if Black has a double move followed by a double move of White and then alternating play, play is more balanced because White does not always tie or lead in moves. Symbolically, Balanced Alternation gives the following move sequence: After White’s (W) initial move, first Black (B) and then White each have two moves in a row (BBWW), followed by the alternating sequence, beginning with W, which altogether can be written as WB/BW/WB/WB/WB… (the slashes separate alternating pairs of moves). Except for reversal of the 3rd and 4th moves from WB to BW, this is the standard chess sequence. Because Balanced Alternation lies between the standard sequence, which favors White, and a comparable sequence that favors Black, it is highly likely to produce a draw with optimal play, rendering chess fairer. This conclusion is supported by a computer analysis of chess openings and how they would play out under Balanced Alternation.
    Keywords: combinatorial games, chess, fairness, sequencing
    JEL: C7
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Laurence Graillot (CREGO - Centre de Recherche en Gestion des Organisations [Dijon] - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE] - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) - Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA) Mulhouse - Colmar - UB - Université de Bourgogne - UFC - Université de Franche-Comté - UBFC - Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté [COMUE])
    Abstract: The quest for well-being is one of the driving forces behind human behaviour, this quest being particularly observed in tourism, which is considered to be an activity that provides it. However, the causes of well-being are not yet fully understood. The aim of this article is to identify the main factors likely to contribute to the well-being experienced in a tourist environment by using the fields of positive psychology and consumer behaviour and, beyond, marketing. Firstly, the contributions of positive psychology to the analysis of well-being will be presented. Secondly, an integrating model of the well-being factors in tourism will be suggested. This model will bring together the analysis of these factors proposed by positive psychology and that of the concept of experiences carried out from the perspective of consumer behaviour. This model will be the basis for the presentation of the different factors likely to foster or hamper well-being in active sports tourism, the experiential potential of the latter being recognized. Thirdly, some managerial implications will be formulated. In conclusion, several contributions, limitations, and future research directions will be outlined.
    Abstract: La quête du bien-être représente l'un des moteurs des comportements humains, cette quête s'observant particulièrement dans le tourisme qui est considéré comme une activité qui le procure. Cependant, les causes du bien-être ne sont pas encore parfaitement appréhendées. Cet article a pour objectif d'identifier les principaux facteurs susceptibles de contribuer au bien-être vécu dans un cadre touristique en mobilisant le champ de la psychologie positive et celui du comportement du consommateur et, au-delà, du marketing. Dans un premier temps, les apports de la psychologie positive à l'analyse du bien-être seront exposés et, dans un deuxième temps, un modèle intégrateur des facteurs du bien-être dans le domaine du tourisme sera proposé. Ce modèle rapprochera l'analyse de ces facteurs offerte par la psychologie positive et celle du concept d'expériences réalisée dans la perspective du comportement du consommateur. Ce modèle fondera la présentation des différents facteurs susceptibles de favoriser ou de restreindre le bien-être dans le cadre du tourisme sportif actif, le potentiel expérientiel de ce dernier étant reconnu. Dans un troisième temps, quelques implications managériales seront formulées. En conclusion, plusieurs apports, limites et prolongements liés à la recherche seront suggérés.
    Keywords: Well-being,Hedonism,Eudaimonism,Experience,Tourism,Active sport tourism,Bien-être,Hédonisme,Eudémonisme,Expérience,Tourisme,Tourisme sportif actif
    Date: 2021

This nep-spo issue is ©2022 by Humberto Barreto. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.