nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒10
two papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Social Pressure in Football Matches: An Event Study of "Remote Matches" in Japan By ARAKI Shota; MORITA Hiroshi
  2. On the Child Quantity-Quality Trade-off: The Academic Performance of World Cup Babies By Dirk Bethmann; Jae Il Cho

  1. By: ARAKI Shota; MORITA Hiroshi
    Abstract: We examine the effect of social pressure on the outcomes of football matches by assessing those matches that did not have spectators as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. From the results of 768 matches with 43 unattended matches in Japan's top two divisions for the 2020 season, we find significant evidence of referee bias due to social pressure by the home team's supporters. With spectators in the stadium, the number of fouls awarded to home teams decreases significantly by about 1.05. In addition, we find that the absolute number of spectators is more dominant as a cause of referee bias than the share of the home team's supporters in the stadium, by estimating a model that considers the restricted stadium capacity amid the pandemic.
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Dirk Bethmann (Korea University; Department of Economics; Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu; Seoul 02841); Jae Il Cho (Vanderbilt University; Department of Economics; 010-back Calhoun Hall, Nashville, TN, 37240, United States)
    Abstract: In June 2002, South Korea and Japan jointly hosted the 17th FIFA World Cup. Stunning match results made Korean people gather in large crowds to cheer for their national team. In the subsequent spring, Korea experienced an increase in the fertility rate. Through a difference-in-differences design, we show that children born approximately 10 months after the World Cup tend to underperform in school.
    Keywords: FIFA World Cup, quantity-quality trade-off, difference-in-differences, academic performance
    JEL: I20 J13 R23
    Date: 2022

This nep-spo issue is ©2022 by Humberto Barreto. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.