nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2021‒05‒03
four papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Does home advantage without crowd exist in American football? By D\'avid Zolt\'an Szab\'o; Diego Andr\'es P\'erez
  2. Are sports events necessarily black holes for public finances? The case of Milan-Cortina 2026 By Jan van der Borg; Mario Volpe; Nicola Camatti; Andrea Albarea
  3. Zur Entwicklung von Vergütungssystemen in deutschen Großsportvereinen By Thieme, Lutz; Falk, Rüdiger
  4. Who gets promoted to the top? Nuanced personality and psychosocial trait differences in highly structured work environments: Evidence from German professional female athletes By Felix Krause; Ho Fai Chan; Sascha L. Schmidt; Dominik Schreyer; Benno Torgler

  1. By: D\'avid Zolt\'an Szab\'o; Diego Andr\'es P\'erez
    Abstract: It is well-known that home team has an inherent advantage against visiting teams when playing team sports. One of the most obvious underlying reasons, the presence of supporting fans has mostly disappeared in major leagues with the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates with the help of historical National Football League (NFL) data, how much effect spectators have on the game outcome. Our findings reveal that under no allowance of spectators the home teams' performance is substantially lower than under normal circumstances, even performing slightly worse than the visiting teams. On the other hand, when a limited amount of spectators are allowed to the game, the home teams' performance is no longer significantly different than what we observe with full stadiums. This suggests that from a psychological point of view the effect of crowd support is already induced by a fraction of regular fans.
    Date: 2021–04
  2. By: Jan van der Borg (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari; Division of Geography and Tourism, KU Leuven, Belgium); Mario Volpe (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Nicola Camatti (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Andrea Albarea (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explore whether huge public investments in international sports events necessarily turn out to be burdens for regional economies or not. This will be illustrated by estimating the economic and, in particular, the fiscal impact of the forthcoming Milan-Cortina 2026 Olympics on the economies and the public finances of the Veneto Region and on those of the Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano. To this end, we use an Input-Output (IO) analysis that we suitably modelled in order to measure also the specific impacts of the Olympic event on the national, regional and local tax systems. The paper will argue that in the case of international sports events, when prepared and managed carefully and also when their legacy is rooted in the regional economic systems from the start, the net effects of these events on the economy and on the public finances might be positive. It also tries to provide regional administrations, specifically referring again to the regional governments of the Veneto and Trentino-Alto Adige in particular, with a number of essential elements for a correct assessment of the socio-economic impact of this event and some suggestions on how the above-mentioned policies before, during and after the event, can help regional administrations to safeguard the collective interest through the hosting of international sports events.
    Keywords: Big Event, Milan-Cortina 2026 Olympics, IO analysis, economic impact, regional development, public finance
    JEL: L83 O18 R58
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Thieme, Lutz; Falk, Rüdiger
    Abstract: Im organisierten Sport, insbesondere in den Großvereinen des Freiburger Kreises, gibt es eine zunehmende Professionalisierung. Dieses hauptamtliche Personal muss vergütet werden. Zu den Vergütungsstrukturen, Vergütungsniveaus und Vergütungssystemen gibt es, wie in großen Teilen der Non-Profit Ökonomie insgesamt, kaum Erkenntnisse. Für breitensportorientierte Vereine liegen weder Studien zu den inhaltlichen Merkmalen von Vergütungssystemen, zu Einflussfaktoren auf die Ausgestaltung, zur Wirkung von Vergütungssystemen oder zu Veränderungen im Zeitverlauf vor. Für die vorliegende Studie wurde von der These von Brandl ausgegangen, dass es drei Stufen von einem personen- über eine funktions- hin zu einem leistungszentrierten Vergütungssystemen gibt, wobei nachfolgende Vergütungssysteme als unmittelbare Reaktion auf bestehende Probleme mit vorangegangenen Vergütungssystemen verstanden werden. Auf der Basis von Befragungen von Großsportvereinen in den Jahren 2004, 2008, 2014 und 2018 konnten nur sehr schwache Hinweise gewonnen werden, dass dieses Modell stimmt. Vergütungssysteme in Großsportvereinen weisen stabile Strukturen auf, die sich weitgehend durch Marktmechanismen und ideelle Orientierungen erklären lassen. Insbesondere konnten kaum Hinweise auf leistungsorientierte Vergütungen gefunden werden, was mit dem Selbstverständnis einer NPO harmoniert.
    Keywords: Sportgroßvereine,Vergütungssystem,Professionalisierung,Non-Profit Organisationen,Large sports clubs,compensation system,professionalization,non-profit organizations
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Felix Krause; Ho Fai Chan; Sascha L. Schmidt; Dominik Schreyer; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: Despite a solid foundation of women’s career progression research, the role of personality and psychosocial characteristics in explaining objective career success is not yet fully understood. Structural underrepresentation of female executives at board levels remains an issue in both Europe in general and Germany in particular. Today, two alternative perspectives on the role of gender and personality in career advancement prevail. On the one hand, the gender-invariant role demands perspective suggests that women in executive positions show agentic personality traits, whereas advocates of the changing leadership roles perspective argue in the opposite direction, emphasizing the benefits of distinct communal traits in today’s changing environment. Analyzing data from 299 German athletes from different sports contexts, 159 of which are female, we investigated the unsolved labor market success puzzle of which personality, psychosocial, and cognitive characteristics are rewarded at the very top of the labor market pyramid for females versus males. Our results provide further support for the gender- invariant role demands perspective as the female athletes who made it to the highest possible ranks do not show many clearly distinguished attributes from their male peers, despite high core self-evaluation (CSES) scores, i.e., rather agentic traits like internal locus of control, self- esteem, and self-efficacy. Using survival analysis, we also find support for the gender-invariant role demands perspective in explaining the relative speed of male and female athletes’ promotions to top positions. As our results are derived from within-sex competition, i.e., women compete with women, while men compete with men for the to p ranked spots, it is particularly noteworthy that even in such settings the gender-invariant role demands perspective prevails. This implies that the numerous efforts of organizations to encourage women’s career progression in recent years need to start addressing leadership requirement perceptions at the core to plant the seed for increased probability of women reaching top executive positions.
    Keywords: CAAS; CSES; objective career success; personality traits; promotion
    Date: 2021–04

This nep-spo issue is ©2021 by Humberto Barreto. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.