nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2021‒04‒05
three papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Betting models using AI: a review on ANN, SVM, and Markov chain By Kollár, Aladár
  3. To the Peculiarities of Legal and Non-Legal Regulation of Social Relations in the Field of Sport By Evgen Kharytonov; Olena Kharytonova; Anatoliy Kostruba; Maksym Tkalych; Yuliia Tolmachevska

  1. By: Kollár, Aladár
    Abstract: In today's modern world, sports generate a great deal of data about each athlete, team, event, and season. Many people, from spectators to bettors, find it fascinating to predict the outcomes of sporting events. With the available data, the sports betting industry is turning to Artificial Intelligence. Working with a great deal of data and information is needed in sports betting all over the world. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are assisting in the prediction of sporting trends. The true influence of technology is felt as it offers these observations in real-time, which can have an impact on important factors in betting. An artificial neural network is made up of several small, interconnected processors called neurons, which are similar to the biological neurons in the brain. In ANN framework, MLP, the most applicable NN algorithm, are generally selected as the best model for predicting the outcomes of football matches. This review also discussed another common technique of modern intelligent technique, namely Support Vector Machines (SVM). Lastly, we also discussed the Markov chain to predict the result of a sport. Markov chain is the sequence or chain from which the next sample from this state space is sampled.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; ANN; Betting; sports; SVM; Markov chain
    JEL: C5 C55 C6
    Date: 2021–03–21
  2. By: Anatoliy Kostruba (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University)
    Abstract: Professional sports, from the standpoint of sociology, is a type of subculture. This is a system of relations based on the factor of social self-regulation. In view of the above, social relations in the field of sports are also characterized by the autonomy of their legal regulation. Such social ecosystem forms an autonomous legal order, which is in a degree of relative dependence on state regulation, while remaining an integral segment of the legal system of society as a whole. The sports order is formed among other factors by a huge network of various institutions, organizations and regulators, cooperation and participation of public and private entities at different levels, and has its own judicial system, which is based on the International Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne. It is the autonomy of the sports legal order that presupposes the existence of a system of jurisdictional bodies whose activities are aimed at considering disputes in the relevant sphere of relations. At the same time, despite the integrity of the system of sports law and order in relation to public law and order, the internal organizational unity, in particular, of the process of resolving disputes in sports relations is unbalanced. The above indicates the need for clearer legal regulation of activities in the field of professional sports, in particular in terms of issues raised. At the level of national legislation of Ukraine, it is necessary to define statutorily self-regulatory organizations, to give the appropriate status to national federations and consolidate the structure of participants in relations in the field of professional sports around them. This will resolve the issue of local regulation of relations in the field of professional sports, including in the disciplinary field, as well as unify the general rules of dispute resolution in the bodies of alternative (arbitration) jurisdiction, appeals against their decisions.
    Keywords: Sport law,Self-regulatory Organizations,Sports Arbitration Court,Sports Arbitration,Civil law scholarship,Corporation law,Partnerships
    Date: 2020–12–16
  3. By: Evgen Kharytonov; Olena Kharytonova (National University «Odesa Law Academy»); Anatoliy Kostruba (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University); Maksym Tkalych (Zaporizhzhia National University); Yuliia Tolmachevska (National University «Odesa Law Academy»)
    Abstract: Sport is a unique area of social relations, which is officially autonomous and ruled not only and not so much by national law, but to a greater extent-by the rules of sports organizations. Due to the fact that sport has an autonomous character, which, in particular, is characterized by the presence of various regulatory sources that comprehensively affect the relevant social relations, the concept of a unique «sports legal order» is now beginning to take shape. The study aims to analyze social relations in the field of sport and the peculiarities of their regulation. Moreover, the research methodology includes a set of methods of scientific cognition, among which are the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, formallogical method, historical method and comparative legal method. Regulation of relations in the field of sports is significantly different from the regulation of other social relations. The presence of such features gives grounds for sports officials to declare the special status of the field of sports and the need to remove it from the general legal order. As a result of the study, the authors of the article came to the conclusion that modern sport has an autonomous status and is a special area of legal and non-legal regulation, which has the characteristics of an independent legal order. At the same time, it is too early to claim the existence of a full-fledged «sports legal order».
    Abstract: El deporte es un área única de las relaciones sociales, que es oficialmente autónoma y se rige no solo y no tanto por la legislación nacional, sino en mayor medida, por las reglas de las organizaciones deportivas. Debido a que el deporte tiene un carácter autónomo, que, en particular, se caracteriza por la presencia de diversas fuentes regulatorias que inciden de manera integral en las relaciones sociales relevantes, comienza a tomar forma el concepto de un "orden jurídico deportivo" único. El estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las relaciones sociales en el ámbito del deporte y las peculiaridades de su regulación. Además, la metodología de investigación incluye un conjunto de métodos de cognición científica, entre los que se encuentran los métodos de análisis, síntesis, inducción, deducción, método lógico-formal, método histórico y método jurídico comparado. La regulación de las relaciones en el campo del deporte es significativamente diferente de la regulación de otras relaciones sociales. La presencia de tales características da motivos para que los oficiales deportivos declaren el estatus especial del campo de los deportes y la necesidad de eliminarlo del orden legal general. Como resultado del estudio, los autores del artículo llegaron a la conclusión de que el deporte moderno tiene un estatus autónomo y es un área especial de regulación legal y no legal, que tiene las características de un orden legal independiente. Al mismo tiempo, es demasiado pronto para afirmar la existencia de un "orden jurídico deportivo" en toda regla.
    Keywords: legal regulation,non-legal regulation,autonomy of sport,sports law,legal order
    Date: 2020–12–09

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