nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2020‒02‒17
two papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. Social Pressure or Rational Reactions to Incentives? A Historical Analysis of Reasons for Referee Bias in the Spanish Football By Stefano Cabras; J. James Reade; J.D. Tena
  2. Time Spent Exercising and Obesity: An Application of Lewbel's Instrumental Variables Method By Courtemanche, Charles; Pinkston, Joshua C.; Stewart, Jay

  1. By: Stefano Cabras; J. James Reade; J.D. Tena
    Abstract: A relevant question in economics is whether cognitive bias can be instigated by social pressure or is it just a rational reaction to incentives in place. Sport, and association football in particular, offer settings in which to gain insights into this question. In this paper we estimate the determinants of the length of time between referee appointments in Spanish soccer as a function of referee decisions in favour of the home and away team in the most recent match by means of a deep-learning model. We do not find strong evidence of an incentive scheme that counteracts well-known home referee biases. Our results also suggest that referees are incentivised to deliver a moderate amount of surprise in the outcome of the game what is consistent with the objective function of consumers and tournament organisers.
    Date: 2018–11
  2. By: Courtemanche, Charles (Georgia State University); Pinkston, Joshua C. (University of Louisville); Stewart, Jay (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role physical activity plays in determining body mass using data from the American Time Use Survey. Our work is the first to address the measurement error that arises when time use during a single day – rather than average daily time use over an extended period – is used as an explanatory variable. We show that failing to account for day-to-day variation in activities results in the effects of time use on a typical day being understated. Furthermore, we account for the possibility that physical activity and body mass are jointly determined by implementing Lewbel's instrumental variables estimator that exploits first-stage heteroskedasticity rather than traditional exclusion restrictions. Our results suggest that, on average, physical activity reduces body mass by less than would be predicted by simple calorie expenditure-to-weight formulas, implying compensatory behavior such as increased caloric intake.
    Keywords: obesity, weight, exercise, physical activity, heteroskedasticity
    JEL: I10 C21
    Date: 2020–01

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