nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2019‒01‒07
four papers chosen by
Humberto Barreto
DePauw University

  1. On-field Performance Assessment in Football: Applying the Connected Network Data Envelopment Analysis Model By Thanasis Bouzidis
  2. Incentives, Performance and Choking in Darts By Bouke Klein Teeselink; Rogier J. D. Potter van Loon; Martijn (M.J.) van den Assem; Dennie van Dolder
  3. The Rio Olympic games and socio-spatial injustice By Nicolau, Michel; Shin, Hyun Bang
  4. "Lootboxes" in digital games - A gamble with consumers in need of regulation? An evaluation based on learnings from Japan By Koeder, Marco Josef; Tanaka, Ema; Mitomo, Hitoshi

  1. By: Thanasis Bouzidis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia)
    Abstract: In this paper, we apply for the first time the connected network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess the on-field performance of football clubs during a league season. Specifically, we separately measure football clubs’ technical efficiency in offense, defense, and points’ earning by using their: (i) attacking and defending moves as the inputs of offense and defense, respectively; (ii) goals scored and goals conceded as the intermediate measures that simultaneously serve as both: (a) the single outputs of offense and defense, respectively; and (b) the inputs of the points’ earning process; (iii) points earned as the single output of the points’ earning process. To illustrate the usefulness of our theoretical framework, we make use of aggregate match statistics from the 2013-2014 Greek premier football league.
    Keywords: Football Clubs; Offense; Defense; Points’ Earning; League Season; Efficiency; DEA.
    JEL: C14 C61 L83
    Date: 2018–12
  2. By: Bouke Klein Teeselink (VU Amsterdam); Rogier J. D. Potter van Loon (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Martijn (M.J.) van den Assem (VU Amsterdam); Dennie van Dolder (VU Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of incentives on the performance of darts players. We analyze four data sets comprising a total of 123,402 darts matches of professional, amateur, and youth players. The game of darts offers an attractive natural research setting, because performance can be observed at the individual level and without the obscuring effects of risk considerations and the behavior of others. We find that amateur and youth players perform better under moderately higher incentives, but choke when the incentives are really high. Professional players similarly display better performance under higher incentives, but appear less susceptible of choking. These results speak to a growing literature on the limits of increasing incentives as a recipe for better performance.
    Keywords: incentives; choking under pressure; performance; darts
    JEL: D01 D91
    Date: 2018–12–28
  3. By: Nicolau, Michel; Shin, Hyun Bang
    Abstract: Rio helped to legitimate a discourse that states that in during extraordinary circumstances, it is fair to make huge transfers of wealth from public to private interests, from lower to upper classes, from the poor to the rich.
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2017–03–07
  4. By: Koeder, Marco Josef; Tanaka, Ema; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: This paper looks at the recent discussion on "Lootboxes" by regulators in several countries referring to the case of Japan in the light of business model revolutions. A game-of-chance mechanic which can be found in more and more in digital games to acquire virtual items and to help monetize these games. These Lootboxes have created several negative reactions and calls for regulation because if their gambling like elements. Japan had similar mechanics in games for a long time called "Gacha" and could serve as an interesting insight into its regulation. Firstly as introduction, this paper explains what Lootboxes are in comparison to "Gacha" in Japan and investigates whether they would qualify as gambling using a gambling taxonomy. Lootboxes and Gacha can be seen as very similar and comparable and both would not qualify as gambling in traditional way as long as it could not be converted into real world currency. Secondly, it reviews recent regulatory actions in Western and Asian countries and their reasonings to regulate or not to regulate "Lootbox" mechanism in games. Regulators approaches to "Lootbox" differ from country to country, from very strict to tolerant, often depending on their understanding and perception of Lootbox mechanis. Thirdly, this paper introduces a player's perception on Lootbox elements and business models. According to a third-party survey, players have a certain preferences and expectation on how to pay for a game or in-game items in accordance with the business model of the game. Several empirical cases showed that an inconsistency or lack of transparency between game players and game companies on how to pay for games could be a trigger for complaints by players, not whether it gambling or not, Finally, this paper summarizes findings from empirical studies and points out the necessity of further studies on "game of chance" elements in games. In the case of so called free-to-play games, the lack of winning probability could be a key issue while for full price games the issue lies more in a lack of transparency of the business model. The former suggests the importance to increase the transparency of "probability" to give players more chances to calculate their chance of winning before they paying for game of chance elements. The latter implies that business models of the game industry have been transforming and games as well as their monetization strategies could be expanded and modified interactively and ceaselessly creating issues on the players side. Both user side and developer side behavior needs to be studies more. But the focus should not only be on gambling and addictive problems -which are important- but also on the issue of business model transformation and the interaction between players and developers in a networked environment.
    Keywords: Free-to-play,Lootbox,Gacha,consumer protection,gambling,micro transactions,games,Japan,Europe,US,regulation,virtual goods
    Date: 2018

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