nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2016‒09‒25
eight papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Compensation Discrimination: An Analysis of Linebackers, Defensive Linemen, and Defensive Backs in the National Football League By Johnny Ducking; Peter A. Groothuis; James Richard Hill
  2. Distance and Decision Makers – The heterogeneity in Irish Sports Capital Funding By O'Connor, Sean
  3. La mondialisation économique du football By Wladimir Andreff
  4. Analyse économique du rugby professionnel en France: Equilibre compétitif et contrainte budgétaire By Wladimir Andreff
  5. Title IX and the Spatial Content of Female Employment—Out of the Lab and into the Labor Market By Michael Baker; Kirsten Cornelson
  6. An Economic History of the Tour de France, 1903-2015 By Jean-François Mignot
  7. Is there a gender difference in the ability to deal with failures? Evidence from professional golf tournaments By Rosenqvist, Olof
  8. Do Men Matter to Female Competition Even When They Don't? By Birk, Erica G.; Lee, Logan M.; Waddell, Glen R.

  1. By: Johnny Ducking; Peter A. Groothuis; James Richard Hill
    Abstract: Previous studies have analyzed compensation discrimination in the National Football League with mixed results. We examine the market for defensive players: defensive linemen, linebackers, and defensive backs and find some evidence of discrimination against black linebackers. We do not find any evidence of discrimination against black defensive linemen and defensive backs. Our results provide some support for the hypothesis that employers, employees, or customers discriminate against black linebackers due to prejudice against black players who have to make decisions that play a major role in the success of the entire defense. Key Words: National Football League, discrimination, compensation, quantile regression
    Date: 2016
  2. By: O'Connor, Sean
    Abstract: Work on geographically targeted spending and its electoral connections, particularly in a sporting context is a well-studied phenomena. However, much, if not all examination has tended to focus on grants as being homogenous without taking into the account the heterogeneity of awards. Therefore, this paper decomposes grants into different types of facilities (All, Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Soccer and Multisport) and tests whether the theory of “sports-pork” holds for all. Secondly, the common binary measure to examine bias is replaced with a new distance variable, which measures the distance between an individual’s hometown and successful club. Finally, for the first time a new relationship is examined, noting the difference between a grant a club applied for relative to what it received. Successful applicants geographically proximate to the Minister for Sport, Finance and Taoiseach receive larger awards, however also lower portions of applied funding. Moreover, examining individual specific effects the bias in distribution for both the Minister of Sport and Taoiseach has decreased under recent individuals.
    Keywords: Pork-Barrel, Political Connections, Capital Grant, Sport-Pork, Lobbying, Ireland
    JEL: H50 R1
    Date: 2016–07–11
  3. By: Wladimir Andreff (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: La mondialisation de l'économie s'est étendue à l'économie du sport dans les années 1990 pour devenir aujourd'hui une caractéristique majeure de la plupart des marchés du sport (Andreff, 2012). Le football est en pointe dans ce mouvement: en 2011, le marché mondial des biens et services sportifs était estimé à 600 milliards €, dont 270 milliards € pour le seul football (soit 45% du total). La mondialisation concerne la pratique du football, le spectacle football et ses sponsors, le football télévisé, les paris sportifs sur le football, les articles de sport destinés à la pratique du football et le marché du travail des footballeurs professionnels (1). Il s'ensuit que les grands clubs de football ressemblent à des firmes transnationales (FTN), notamment par leur modèle de financement (2). Les problèmes que rencontre le football sont désormais à la même échelle: mondiale; on examine ici la corruption, notamment la plus répandue, liée aux matchs truqués (3). 1. Les marchés mondiaux du football La pratique du football est née en Angleterre, s'est d'abord répandue en Europe continentale, puis dans le monde entier, 208 pays à présent. Le Big Count de la FIFA dénombrait 265 millions de pratiquants et 5 millions d'arbitres et de dirigeants dans le monde en 2006. Ces chiffres n'incluent pas la pratique hors des structures fédérales. Le nombre réel de joueurs s'adonnant effectivement au football est probablement de plus d'un demi-milliard de personnes sur la planète, la troisième population du monde après celles de la Chine et de l'Inde. Mondialisation de la pratique du football que précise un peu le Tableau 1. Tableau 1: La mondialisation de la pratique du football, 2000-2006
    Keywords: économie du sport,mondialisation, football
    Date: 2015–05–01
  4. By: Wladimir Andreff (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Analyse économique du Top 14: équilibre compétitif, attractivité comparée à celle du football, affluence, recettes des matchs, revenus de la ligue, modèle de financement du rugby professionnel, plafonnement de la masse salariale, déficit et endettement, contrainte budgétaire lache, role de la DNACG
    Keywords: économie du sport, rugby, contrainte budgétaire lache
    Date: 2015–09–01
  5. By: Michael Baker; Kirsten Cornelson
    Abstract: Sports participation is a leading environmental explanation of the male advantage in some spatial skills. We exploit the large increase in females’ high school sports participation due to Title IX to test this hypothesis. We relate Title IX induced increases in females’ sport participation to the spatial content of their occupational employment as captured by Dictionary of Occupational Titles codes, and a test of three dimensional spatial rotation. We find little evidence that this increase in sports participation had an impact on either of these measures.
    JEL: I28 J16 J24
    Date: 2016–09
  6. By: Jean-François Mignot (GEMASS - Groupe d'Etude des Méthodes de l'Analyse Sociologique de la Sorbonne - UP4 - Université Paris-Sorbonne - FMSH - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since its creation in 1903, the Tour de France has remained the biggest of all professional cycling events. This chapter aims to present three aspects of the economic history of the Tour de France and what they tell us about the economic history of sport. First, the Tour has always been owned by private newspaper and media companies. This is why I analyze the level and composition of these companies’ turnover, their business strategies and the reasons for their overall success. Second, Tour riders have always been professionals. This is why I analyze riders’ incomes and prize money and their distribution, which shows clear “winner-takes-all” aspects. Third, the demand for sport shows by Tour spectators reveals broad trends in Europe’s economic history since the early 20th century: the diffusion of bicycles, newspapers and mass consumption, the increase in leisure time, and the advent of the mass media.
    Keywords: sport,Economic history,Cycling,Tour de France
    Date: 2016–08–26
  7. By: Rosenqvist, Olof (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Recent experimental evidence suggests that women in general are more discouraged than men by failures which potentially can explain why women, on average, are less likely than men to reach top positions in firms. This paper provides the first quasi-experimental evidence from the field on this issue using data from all-female and all-male professional golf tournaments to see if this result can be replicated among competitive men and women. These top-performing men and women are active in an environment with multiple rounds of competition and the institutional set-up of the tournaments makes it possible to causally estimate the effect of the result in one tournament on the performance in the next. The results show that both male and female golfers respond negatively to a failure and that their responses are virtually identical. This finding gives support to the hypothesis that women’s difficulties in reaching top positions in firms are caused by external rather than internal barriers, but does of course not rule that other internal barriers may be present for women.
    Keywords: glass ceiling; failure; gender; regression discontinuity design; golf
    JEL: C93 J16 J24 L83
    Date: 2016–09–15
  8. By: Birk, Erica G. (University of Oregon); Lee, Logan M. (Grinnell College); Waddell, Glen R. (University of Oregon)
    Abstract: A large literature attempts to identify factors that contribute to gender differences in performance and in the decision to compete. We exploit a highly competitive environment in which elite-female athletes are exposed to the presence of men without the element of direct competition, which allows for the identification of psychological effects of competition. Our results suggest that the presence of men affects the performance of female runners differentially across ability, with negative performance effects being concentrated among lower-ability runners.
    Keywords: competition, competitiveness, athlete, gender
    JEL: J16 D01 D03
    Date: 2016–09

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