nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2016‒05‒14
four papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The effects of the three-point rule in individual sports: Evidence from chess By Parinduri, Rasyad; Lee, Yoong Hon; Tiong, Kung Ming
  2. Der Zusammenhang zwischen sportlicher (Wettkampf-)Aktivität und kognitiver Leistung By Michael Müller
  3. The ‘Typical’ Club? A Configuration Analysis of Scottish Football Clubs By Andrew Adams; Stephen Morrow; Ian Thomson
  4. Emotion vs. cognition - Experimental evidence on cooperation from the 2014 Soccer World Cup By Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Giamattei, Marcus; Werner, Katharina; Schubert, Manuel

  1. By: Parinduri, Rasyad; Lee, Yoong Hon; Tiong, Kung Ming
    Abstract: We examine the effects of the three-point rule in individual sports. We consider chess in which most tournaments use the standard rule while some tournaments use the Bilbao rule, which is identical to the three-point rule in soccer: We observe the same pairs of chess players playing under both rules, a research design that fits fixed-effect models. We find the Bilbao rule makes games 33 percent more decisive, mostly to white players’ advantage who win 50 percent more games. We identify two mechanisms why the Bilbao rule works: It encourages players to play longer and discourages them from using drawish openings. These results suggest incentive schemes like the three-point rule work in individual sports in which efforts and financial rewards are directly linked and game dynamics and strategic interactions among teammates and with opponents are less complex.
    Keywords: scoring systems, three-point rule, individual sports, chess, fixed effects model
    JEL: C23 D01 L83
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Michael Müller
    Abstract: The positive effect of sporting activity and competition on individual labour market outcomes like higher wages has been shown several times before. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), this study analyses whether active participation in sports and tournaments raises the cognitive performance and thereby justifies the better outcomes at the labour market. The results show that persons exercising more are faster in mental processing and have better results in more extensive cognitive tests. The participation in sports tournaments and some variety in one’s activities increase the cognitive performance further.
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Andrew Adams; Stephen Morrow; Ian Thomson (Heriot-Watt University)
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is the complex relationships amongst ownership, financing, accountability and governance structures on the performance, resilience and perceived value of Scottish professional football clubs. However, there are numerous clubs which would regard themselves as successful without recently, or indeed ever, winning a trophy. For many, avoiding relegation or surviving until the end of the season could constitute success. Many contemporary professional football clubs are now complex businesses, intrinsically concerned with financial matters. Yet it is not uncommon for financially secure clubs to be criticised while the owners of clubs with extreme levels of indebtedness are praised for their commitment. We conceptualise football clubs as boundary objects; organizations that co-exist in different social worlds, serving different functions for those in these social worlds. Football clubs can be seen as spaces where different values/ideas can be translated and exchanged, and therefore the value of a football club is something that a club co-determines through engagement with its key stakeholders. The resilience of a football club is likely to be affected by a combination of different notions of value and the diversity of roles demanded by its network of stakeholders. This suggests that it is the alignment between a club’s ownership structure, governance mechanisms, accountability and methods of financing and the demands from the social worlds in which it inhabits that will be critical for the success, however defined, of a club.
    Keywords: Scottish football; configuration analysis; boundary objects; supporter ownership.
    JEL: M49 Z21
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Giamattei, Marcus; Werner, Katharina; Schubert, Manuel
    Abstract: We investigate methods for stimulating cooperation by help of a controlled lab-inthefield experiment. This allows us to compare group-related emotional and cognitive stimuli. The experiment was carried out in a sober classroom and in an emotionally loaded environment, a Bavarian beer garden during a public viewing event with a large screen displaying the soccer game. Contrary to widespread belief, we do not find shared and contagious emotions at the public viewing event to advance cooperation. Variations of the game reveal that only cognitive factors, namely the joint attention to a common goal, substantially increase cooperation.
    Date: 2016

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