nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
four papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Soccer Clubs and Regional Image By Rüdiger Hamm
  2. Can Ten do it Better? Impact of Red Card in the English Premier League By Chowdhury, Abdur

  1. By: Rüdiger Hamm
    Abstract: A number of studies have been conducted trying to describe and estimate the regional economic effects of sports clubs, especially of soccer clubs. Most of these studies focus on demand-side effects because regional multiplier analysis seems to offer a powerful tool for this kind of estimations. In most cases these analyses come to the conclusion that there are significant demand-side effects. But firstly the results of calculating the demand side effects of soccer clubs by regional multiplier analyses should be handled with care because many assumptions are necessary offering analysts a wide range of possibilities to influence the results. And secondly the demand side effects of sports clubs do not exceed the demand side effects of a ?normal? medium-sized enterprise to a considerable extend; only the fans? expenditures might explain a positive difference. Nevertheless it seems that there is something more beyond regional multiplier analysis (CROMPTON), some additional regional effects of soccer clubs that bring benefit to the location of such a club. These effects stem from the supply side, they are especially connected with regional awareness and image and they are usually omitted from the analysis because quantification is nearly impossible. It is hardly possible, too, to quantify the effects of regional awareness and image for regional economic development. But analyses based on firm surveys suggest that regional image can be seen as an important location condition. That is why location theory often regards regional image as a separate ?soft factor of location?, that codetermines entrepreneurial decisions. Sports clubs and sports events are part of numerous factors that, in turn, influence regional image. This would mean that a soccer club that is able to transfer its (positive) image to its hometown might finally be able to affect regional economic development of this city positively. Aim of the following paper is to thoroughly analyse these relationships. Using VfL 1900 Borussia Mönchengladbach ? a well-known member of the German premier soccer league ? as an example the paper deals with the following questions: (a) Is it possible to identify awareness increasing effects of the soccer club for the city of Mönchengladbach, (b) which role can Borussia play as an important icon of the city of Mönchengladbach and (c) are there any hints that the club?s image can be transferred to the city? Part 1 of the paper systemizes and describes regional economic effects of a premier league soccer club. Using survey data the subsequent empirical considerations (part 2) try to qualify and (to a certain extend) quantify the mentioned effects by means of descriptive statistics as well as factor and regression analysis. The paper ends with some final remarks on the major findings (part 3).
    Keywords: Regional Image; Regional Development; Soccer
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Chowdhury, Abdur (Department of Economics Marquette University)
    Abstract: After penalties and goals, red cards are the next most significant event that can impact the outcome of a soccer (football) game. Using data from the English Premier League, this paper statistically analyzes the impact of whether a sending-off of a player actually turns out to be a punishment for the penalized team, or if - as a popular soccer myth states – penalized teams perform better than they would have performed, had they not received a red card. The results show that the sending-offs negatively affect the performance of the penalized team, no matter when the sending-off occurs. Getting a red card doesn’t increase the perceived pressure on the remaining players inducing higher effort levels. This is true for both the home and the visiting teams. It contradicts the repeated soccer cliché that playing against ten men is more difficult than eleven.
    Keywords: soccer, red card, English premier league
    JEL: L83 C12
    Date: 2015–03
  3. By: Abdullah Kilci (Selcuk University Health Sciences Institute); Sefa Lok (Selcuk University Faculty of Sport Medicine)
    Abstract: Introduction and Aim: There has been a dramatic increase in the use of doping agents today. Used by athletes to increase strength, endurance and speed, AAS lead to various negative effects on the human body despite enhancing performance and strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphometric effects of testosterone supplementation on certain extremity bones in young swim-trained rats.Methods: The study was conducted with a total of 24 30-day-old male Wistar rats obtained from Selcuk University Experimental Medicine Research and Application Center. The rats were divided into four equal groups of six: control (C), exercise (E), testosterone (T) and testosterone+exercise (TE) groups. The appropriate weekly dose was adjusted for the rats in the testosterone-treated group according to their body weights. The front and rear extremity bones of the materials were dissected and the uncovered humerus and femur bones were dried. The length, corpus thickness, cortex cortical thickness and medulla diameter points of each bone were determined and the morphometric measurements were taken. The results were presented as Mean±SD. Data were analyzed through comparison between the groups by using ANOVA and Duncan test. The significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: The femur and humerus lengths of the TE, T, E, and C groups were compared and the respective lengths were femur; 32.24±1.04 for the C group, 32.23±0.28 for the E group, 31.12 for the TE group and 30.72±30.93 for the T group, humerus; 25,74±0,77 for the C group, 25,66±0,25 fot the E group, 24,68±0,53 for the TE group and 24,58±0,41 for the T group. The femur and humerus bones of the rats in the groups given testosterone supplementation (TE and T) were significantly shorter than those of the rats in the other two groups (p<0.05). However, there were not any statistical differences among the TE, T, E, and C groups in terms of cortex, corpus and medullary diameter measurements of the femur and humerus bones (of p>0.05).Conclusion: The results of the study showed that testosterone supplementation stopped the growth of femur and humerus by causing premature epiphyseal closure in them. Also, even exercise did not reduce the adverse effects of testosterone supplementation. Although some athletes think that prohibited agents used as AAS affect performance positively, these agents should not be used because of their adverse effects on athletes’ health and because they are against sports ethics.
    Keywords: Testosterone, Exercise, Femur, Humerus
  4. By: Muammer Canbaz (Selcuklu Anatolian School); Sefa Lok (Selcuk University Faculty of Sport Science); Metin Sahin (Selcuk University Faculty of Sport Science); Neslihan Lok (Akdeniz University Faculty of Nursing)
    Abstract: Introduction and Aim: The importance of physical activity and exercise is increasing nowadays. Physical activity is essential for healthy individuals and healthy societies considering the benefits of it. Taekwondo is a sport that requires intense training. However, referees are not subject to the same conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physical activity levels and quality of life of taekwondo referees.Methods:The study population consisted of taekwondo referees working in Turkey. The study sample consisted of 324 taekwondo referees who were willing to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews,a socio-demographic questionnaire, the SF-36 quality of life scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Short Form. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Student’s t test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson’s correlation test. Results:The study found that 47% of the participants were female, their mean age was 33.28±3.35 and the average duration of working as a referee was 2.72±8:42. In terms of physical activity levels, 2.1% of the participants were inactive, 27.6%were minimally active,and 70.3% were very active. Considering the physical activity levels based on gender, the male participants were physically more active than the female ones (p<0.05). Regarding the quality of life scores of the participants, the physical health mean score was 77.5±15.2 while the mental health mean score was 77.4±19.1. There was a strong positive correlation between the participants’physical activity levels and the quality of life mean scores, a strong positive correlation was found (r=0.145, p=0.001).Conclusion:This study found that there was a strong direct relationship between the physical activity level and quality of life of the participants, and quality of life would improveas physical activity levels increased. The importance of being physically active for leading a quality life and being healthy was shown once again. The study also concluded that taekwondo refereesare physically as active as athletes.
    Keywords: Taekwondo, Physical aktivity, Quality life

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