nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Understanding the factors influencing soccer team identification and its impacts on team sponsors: An evidence from Thailand Premier league By DISSATAT PRASERTSAKUL; TITIPONG Titipong Rerngrittirong RERNGRITTIRONG
  2. Optimistic and Positivity Biases in Employee Ratings: Empirical Evidence from Professional Soccer By Steffen Merkel; Sascha L. Schmidt; Benno Torgler
  3. Research of recreational sport habits at the University of Debrecen By Christa Pfau
  4. Using Grey Relational Analysis to Determine the Financial Performance of Turkish Football Clubs By Ä°lker Sakinc
  5. How the ‘Hand of Henry’ Benefited the South African Economy By Johan Fourie and María Santana-Gallego
  6. Elite Athletes at the University of Debrecen By Andrea Lenténé Puskás

    Abstract: Sponsorship expenditures have increased dramatically in the past decade worldwide. The ampliï¬ed investments are associated with the effectiveness of sponsorship as a marketing communication tool. The most common form of sponsorship is in sport, which relates to sponsoring sport teams, associations events or even athletes. This study was conducted in the professional sport sponsorship setting by investigating antecedents and consequences of team identification. Even though previous studies examined a variety of factors influencing team identification and its outcomes; for example, team identification was found to influence consumers’ intention to purchase the products from sponsoring companies, there is few research combines antecedents and consequences of team identification into one study. This study proposes a model to investigate the determining factors and the outcomes of sport sponsorship. Whilst soccer is reported to be the most popular sport in the world and also in Thailand, questionnaires were collected from 400 fans of professional soccer teams in Thailand. The hypotheses in the proposed model were tested using regression analysis. The results indicated that team attractiveness, similarity, and awareness significantly influenced team identification, and team identification in turn affected sponsor identification, attitudes toward the sponsor, sponsor patronage, and satisfaction with the sponsor. From a practical perspective, both sponsors and sport team marketers should have a firm understanding of when and how sponsorship works to maximize its value
    Keywords: Sport marketing, team identification, sponsorship, soccer team
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2014–10
  2. By: Steffen Merkel; Sascha L. Schmidt; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: This study uses a real case from professional soccer to examine intertemporal rating errors in performance appraisals. Motivated by research that extends the (prospective) optimistic bias and (retrospective) positivity bias to others, we formulate five hypotheses on the reflection of these biases in employee ratings and on rater-/ratee-related moderators of effect sizes. Employing unique assessment data for 164 players from a German Bundesliga club’s youth academy, we show that the ratings of predicted and remembered performance are indeed higher than the talents’ actual performance throughout a season. The differences depend positively on both the rater’s experience and the amount of information available on the ratee but are not significantly influenced by the closeness of their relationship. Moreover, the (prospective) anticipation is even more positively biased than the (retrospective) recollection of the players’ performance, which highlights an interesting asymmetry between looking forward and backward. Because the academy’s appraisal and promotion schemes resemble typical company practices, we subsequently transpose our new understanding of rating errors – especially their intertemporal nature – to the business domain, suggesting practical implications for the design of corporate appraisal systems.
    Keywords: optimistic bias; positivity bias; rating error; performance appraisal; professional soccer
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Christa Pfau (University of Debrecen)
    Abstract: Recreational sports have rising importance in university life. In 2007, a new sport strategy was implemented, (XXI National Sport Strategy), which analyses the current conditions in recreational sports in Hungary and describes its developmental potentials. Additionally, last year a new concept for university sport was introduced (Hajos Alfred Program), having as its most important goal, to develop the recreational sporting activities within the universities’ environment. The latter is of high importance, as this is the last period, when, on an institutional level, we can establish and enhance the need for physical activity among young generations. My study focuses on recreational sport activities among university students at several faculties of the University of Derbecen.Data collection was completed on a paper based questionnaire, 42 closed-type questions were included and a total of 213 students completed it. 112 men and 101 women answered the questions. It consisted of 3 main groups of questions. The first group of questions included sporting activities of students and questions about sports preferences. In the second group of questions academic recreational sport services while in the third group demographic data was concerned. The results were analyzed by gender and categories of athletes inside and outside the campus. 1. Several of the respondents do sports inside the campus than outside. At the same time, athletes outside the campus are less familiar with the recreational sport facilities offered by university. By gender, a higher proportion of men are informed about events, sport chalices and occupations than women.2. Basically, there were differences neither by gender nor athletes inside and outside the campus in terms of their activity of sports. Consistently, the lack of time was identified as the most significant difficulty of regular exercise opportunity, however, reconciling the obligations timetable sporting activities also caused difficulties, the latter was more pronounced among women.3. There were no differences in the motivational factors among the sub-groups, reinforcing the healthy lifestyle was the most decisive motivational reason. Apparently, both inside and outside the campus academic athletes have the same motivational factors in the terms of their sporting activities. Any differences between site preference of motivational factors neither their relations to sport nor sporting values of the formed opinion can give adequate answers, to the development of these differences all other factors are decisive.
    Keywords: recreational sport, university, sport habits,
    Date: 2014–10
  4. By: Ä°lker Sakinc (Hitit University, Banking and Finance Department)
    Abstract: Football has become an important industry in the Turkey. A huge amount of sponsoring, advertising, betting funds into football and also television rights are sold for billions of Turkish Liras. In order to compete better in Turkish league, football clubs have done considerable investments and have aspired to be listed on the stock exchange. The pioneer was BeÅŸiktaÅŸ that went public in 2002. After that three football clubs were listed on Borsa Istanbul (BIST). The aim of this study is to evaluate the financial performance of four big (BeÅŸiktaÅŸ, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor) football clubs listed on BIST from 2009-2010 to 2012-2013. In order to evaluate these clubs, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used. GRA is widely used in various disciplines such as economics, engineering, sociology and finance. It can be used as a rating, classification and decision making technique to determine the important factors among those required for a system with a limited amount of data set.
    Keywords: Grey Relational Analysis, Financial Performance, Turkish Football Clubs, BIST.
    JEL: G14 L83
    Date: 2014–10
  5. By: Johan Fourie and María Santana-Gallego
    Abstract: This paper highlights an aspect of mega-events that has been neglected: the changing composition of tourist arrivals during and after theevent. The change happens because, in the FIFA World Cup, a quota of countries participates from each continent and this opens up new tourismmarkets. We show that the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa had a smaller growth effect on South Africa’s traditional tourism markets butattracted a large increase from non-traditional ones. However, the size of the effect, we find, is partly due to randomness: it depends on matchresults in the qualification phase of the tournament. We use a new longrun dataset of tourism flows to South Africa and a gravity model fortourism flows and run counterfactual examples of play-off matches during the qualification phase to estimate how much more South Africa couldhave benefited had larger or richer countries qualified. We conclude that the random results of a few play-off games significantly affect the extentto which the World Cup benefits the host country’s economy.
    Keywords: mega-event, tourism, FIFA World Cup, football, soccer, South Africa, gravity model, counterfactual analysis
    JEL: C8 N3 N4
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Andrea Lenténé Puskás (University of Debrecen)
    Abstract: Student athletes often face challenges in building up a dual career as they try to meet the requirements of the athletic and academic fields at the same time. In fact, the peak of the sport career and the academic studies at the university tend to overlap. According to the main objectives and guidelines of the European Union, the University of Debrecen has come up with a Sport Conception that lays great emphasis on integrating student athletes into higher education, balancing the athletic and academic fields and supporting dual career. The objective of the study is to explore how student athletes are able to combine their athletic and academic goals with the environment, policies and requirements of the university.Document analysis was used to explore the structure of university sport. During the analysis, the Sport Conception of the University was especially taken notice of. The examination of dual career was carried out through case studies in groups involving top-performance and elite student athletes of the University of Debrecen (n=15). The groups were formed according to the distribution of gender and sport, the level and the type of sport (individual or team sport disciplines). The analysis of the Sport Conception of the University of Debrecen shows that the university supports student athletes, who intend to graduate while maintaining their athletic career, with different measures and regulations. The results of the case study analysis indicate that it is important for top-performance student athletes to be also successful on the academic field parallel to their athletic career. The combination of sport and education needs compromises and good time management. This is very much influenced by the nature, attributes and level of sport, and the number of trainings per day/week. Another crucial point is the choice of major at the university. As for the summary the realization of a successful dual career needs to have strategies ensuring student athletes that they can reach the best result possible on both fields. The different kind of support provided by the university and the relationships between student athletes and their professors, peers and coaches are the most significant factors of the athletic career.
    Keywords: higher education, elite athletes, dual career in sport, sport concept
    Date: 2014–10

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