nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2015‒02‒22
two papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Der Zusammenhang zwischen sportlicher (Wettkampf-)Aktivität und kognitiver Leistung By Müller, Michael
  2. Optimistic and Positivity Biases in Employee Ratings: Empirical Evidence from Professional Soccer By Steffen Merkel; Sascha L. Schmidt; Benno Torgler

  1. By: Müller, Michael
    Abstract: Der positive Einfluss sportlicher (Wettkampf-)Aktivität auf den Arbeitsmarkterfolg beispielsweise in Form höherer Entlohnung wurde bereits mehrfach nachgewiesen. In diesem Beitrag wird mit Daten des Sozioökonomischen Panels (SOEP) analysiert, ob die sportliche (Wettkampf-)Aktivität zu einer höheren kognitiven Leistungsfähigkeit führt und somit die größeren Erfolge auf dem Arbeitsmarkt sachlich gerechtfertigt sind. Es zeigt sich, dass sportlich aktivere Menschen eine schnellere mentale Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit erreichen und bei umfangreicheren kognitiven Tests im Vergleich zu Nichtsportlern bessere Leistungen erbringen. Die Teilnahme an sportlichen Wettkämpfen und vielseitige Betätigungen erhöhen die kognitive Leistungsfähigkeit weiter.
    Abstract: The positive effect of sporting activity and competition on individual labour market outcomes like higher wages has been shown several times before. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), this study analyses whether active participation in sports and tournaments raises the cognitive performance and thereby justifies the better outcomes at the labour market. The results show that persons exercising more are faster in mental processing and have better results in more extensive cognitive tests. The participation in sports tournaments and some variety in one's activities increase the cognitive performance further.
    JEL: J24 J31 L83 M51
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Steffen Merkel; Sascha L. Schmidt; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: This study uses a real case from professional soccer to examine intertemporal rating errors in performance appraisals. Motivated by research that extends the (prospective) optimistic bias and (retrospective) positivity bias to others, we formulate five hypotheses on the reflection of these biases in employee ratings and on rater-/ratee-related moderators of effect sizes. Employing unique assessment data for 164 players from a German Bundesliga club’s youth academy, we show that the ratings of predicted and remembered performance are indeed higher than the talents’ actual performance throughout a season. The differences depend positively on both the rater’s experience and the amount of information available on the ratee but are not significantly influenced by the closeness of their relationship. Moreover, the (prospective) anticipation is even more positively biased than the (retrospective) recollection of the players’ performance, which highlights an interesting asymmetry between looking forward and backward. Because the academy’s appraisal and promotion schemes resemble typical company practices, we subsequently transpose our new understanding of rating errors – especially their intertemporal nature – to the business domain, suggesting practical implications for the design of corporate appraisal systems.
    Keywords: optimistic bias; positivity bias; rating error; performance appraisal; professional soccer
    Date: 2015–02

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