nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2014‒03‒15
four papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior and Universidade de Lisboa

  1. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players By Ruud Koning; Victor Matheson; Anil Nathan; James Pantano
  2. Outcome Uncertainty, Governance Structure, and Attendance: A Study of the Korean Professional Football League By Young Hoon Lee; Hayley Jang
  3. Women, Sports, and Development: Does It Pay to Let Girls Play? By Barbara Kotschwar
  4. Major League Baseball Attendance: Long-term Analysis Using Factor Models By Seung C.Ahn; Young H. Lee

  1. By: Ruud Koning (Department of Economics and Econometrics, University of Groningen); Victor Matheson (Department of Economics and Accounting, College of the Holy Cross); Anil Nathan (Department of Economics and Accounting, College of the Holy Cross); James Pantano (Department of Economics and Accounting, College of the Holy Cross)
    Abstract: The National Football League (NFL) has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether or not participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.
    Keywords: National Football League, premature deaths, survivability, injuries
    JEL: L83 I10 I19
  2. By: Young Hoon Lee (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul); Hayley Jang (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul)
    Abstract: In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the attendance determinants of the Korean Professional Football League (K-League) using panel data from 15 individual teams during the 1987?2011 seasons. The K-League has some unique characteristics that other leagues, particularly those in North America and Europe, do not possess. The governance structure is heterogeneous, including both multiple-supporter-owned and major-corporation-owned teams. Additionally, the regulation authority shifted over the time period studied from broadly regional to city based. The results of this study suggested that the home-and-away match system with a host city attracted greater attendance than the system with multiple host cities, and the supporter-owned teams attracted more fans than did large-company-owned clubs when other attendance determinants were held constant. Outcome uncertainty for attendance determination was significant, not only statistically but also economically.
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Barbara Kotschwar (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: Women have come a long way in sports, as the recent winter Olympics demonstrated, but more progress is called for. Studies show that girls with access to sports reap far-reaching benefits throughout their lives. Girls who play sports do better in school, suffer fewer health problems, achieve more in subjects (such as science) long dominated by men, and hold better jobs. While lowering barriers to girls in education and labor markets, all countries, especially in the developing world, should incorporate physical education programs for girls, train teachers in gender sensitivity, and guarantee equal access to facilities, equipment, and mentors.
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: Seung C.Ahn (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul); Young H. Lee (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul)
    Abstract: Although Major League Baseball (MLB) has a long history, most studies of attendance have focused on recent years because important explanatory data, such as ticket prices, are often missing for earlier periods. The present study aims to fill gaps in the data by analyzing individual team attendance records between 1904 and 2012. If important missing variables are determined using common factors that can influence between-teams attendance, the attendance function can be estimated by a panel factor model. Using this approach, our results indicate that the determinants of fans¡¯ attendance decisions have changed over time. In earlier years, winning performance was an important determinant of attendance. However, in recent years, other factors have also influenced attendance. Not only the home team¡¯s winning performance, but also the outcome uncertainty, size and quality of the stadium, and playing styles influence fan attendance in present-day MLB.
    Keywords: Attendance, outcome uncertainty, common factors, factor loading, panel data, fan loyalty
    JEL: L83 C23
    Date: 2014

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