nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2013‒03‒16
seven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Emergence of a professional sports league and human capital formation for sports: The Japanese Professional Football League. By Yamamura, Eiji
  2. The impact of mega sports events on the stock markets By Zawadzki, Krystian
  3. Impact of the Euro 2012 on the Pomeranian Region and Its Small and Medium Enterprises in Terms of Competitiveness By Zawadzki, Krystian; Wasilczuk, Julita
  4. Impact of playoffs on seasonal uncertainty in Czech ice hockey Extraliga By Lahvicka, Jiri
  5. Is body mass human capital in sports? Outcome of globalization of sumo wrestling and generation of human capital in Japan By Yamamura, Eiji
  6. Nobody's innocent: the role of customers in the doping dilemma By Buechel, Berno; Emrich, Eike; Pohlkamp, Stefanie
  7. Risky Sports and the Value of Information By Leiter, Andrea; Rheinberger, Christoph

  1. By: Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: The Japanese Professional Football League (J-league) was established in 1993. Based on individual level data, this study investigated how emergence of the league affected Japanese people playing football using the differences-in-differences method. The following main findings were obtained. (1) In areas where a J-League team’s home town was located, people were more likely to play football after emergence of the J-League than before it emerged. (2) There was a positive effect of the J-league on people who were younger and older than 25 years old between 1991 and 1996. (3) Between 1991 and 2006, this positive effect persisted and increased for younger people, while it disappeared for older people.
    Keywords: Football; Emergence of professional league; industrial development
    JEL: J24 L83 Z1
    Date: 2013–02–26
  2. By: Zawadzki, Krystian
    Abstract: This study attempts to estimate the impact of mega sports events organization on the stock market. For this purpose, there were selected seven sporting events taking place in the World Cup and European Football Championships and summer and winter Olympic Games. Next their impact on national equity markets represented by the major stock indices was determined. The study was conducted in two periods of research, ie the date of publication decision to hold an event and during the event itself.
    Keywords: mega sport event, stock market, stock indices, Olympic Games, World Cup, European Football Championship
    JEL: G14 G15
    Date: 2013–02–18
  3. By: Zawadzki, Krystian; Wasilczuk, Julita
    Abstract: In the course of preparations to the 2012 European Football Championship (Euro 2012) many doubts have arisen as to the actual cost-benefit balance affecting the hosting country. The event is accompanied by intense promotion of the agglomeration and the region, especially abroad. In effect, one can anticipate the competitive position of both the region and the businesses operating there to improve. The investigation whether the Euro 2012 will have an impact on the Pomeranian Region was conducted threefold. First, a modified Preuss (2007a) model was used to analyse the regional environment factors, which would contribute to improve competitiveness of the region and its Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). In the second area, the short run increase in business activities were investigated using the field research among the entrepreneurs. The last part of research was focused on the growth willingness of entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Mega Sport Event, Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: D81 R11
    Date: 2013–02–18
  4. By: Lahvicka, Jiri
    Abstract: In the top Czech ice hockey competition “Extraliga”, 14 geographically close teams compete during a regular season in a pure round-robin tournament. However, the eventual champion is determined in the additional playoff stage; the regular season just decides which teams qualify for the playoffs and how these teams are seeded. This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation to show that although the additional playoff stage heavily favors higher-seeded teams and consists of a lot of matches, it lowers the probability of the best team becoming a champion and thus increases seasonal uncertainty.
    Keywords: seasonal uncertainty, Monte Carlo, ice hockey, tournament design
    JEL: C53 L83
    Date: 2013–02–27
  5. By: Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: Using a data set for all sumo wrestlers in the post-World War II period, this paper investigates how wrestlers’ body mass index (BMI) is associated with wrestlers’ winning rate and absence rate. Further, the effect of BMI is compared between an early period (before the emergence of foreign wrestlers) and latter period (after the emergence of foreign wrestlers). After accounting for endogenous bias using instrumental variables, the key findings are that (1) there is no positive relation between the BMI and winning rate in either the early or latter period and (2) there is a positive relation between the BMI and absence rate in the latter period but not in the early period.
    Keywords: Sumo wrestling, Body mass index, Human capital, International labor mobility; Immigrant
    JEL: I15 J24 L83 N35
    Date: 2013–02–28
  6. By: Buechel, Berno; Emrich, Eike; Pohlkamp, Stefanie
    Abstract: To which extent high performances in professional sports are based on the use of illicit substances or other doping practices is extremely difficult to measure empirically. Game-theoretical approaches predict strong incentives to dope based on the interaction among athletes (prisoner's dilemma) or the interaction between some control organization and the athletes (inspection game). The role of stakeholders such as customers, sponsors, and the media is either ignored or only informally discussed. One might think that customers who are ready to withdraw their support after a doping scandal, would reduce the incentives to dope. We explicitly model the strategic interaction of such customers with athletes and organizers and strongly refute this (optimistic) conjecture. Customers even trigger doping by putting a threat on the organizers not to conduct serious doping tests. However, we show that this result can be altered by a change in the information structure. If transparency about doping tests is established, then there is a doping-free equilibrium. This has practical implications for the design of anti-doping policies, as well as for other situations of fraudulent activities.
    Keywords: inspection game, doping, professional sports, scandals, cheating
    JEL: C72 K42 L83
    Date: 2013–02–20
  7. By: Leiter, Andrea; Rheinberger, Christoph
    Abstract: We develop a theoretical account of how athletes engaged in risky sports value riskreducing information and use stated-preference data from a sample of backcountry skiers to empirically challenge the predictions of our model. Risk taking in this specific context depends on the athlete’s personal attitudes toward risky activities and his strategies to control the risk. Usage of specific information is one strategy of risk control. We estimate the demand value for avalanche information. Caution is however warranted because unobserved factors may jointly affect the athlete’s perception of risk and his willingness-to-pay for obtaining the information. We use a recursive two stage estimation approach to account for endogeneity concerns. Our results indicate that the demand value of information increases with wealth and perceived risk and tends to decrease with better skills to control risk and more information about the prevailing field conditions. These results support our theoretical predictions and suggest that variation in athletes’ WTP can be explained by their beliefs about the usefulness of information.
    Keywords: Self-controlled risk, endogeneity, risky sports, value of information, WTP.
    JEL: D81 J17 Q26
    Date: 2013–02

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