nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2011‒10‒01
three papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Prize Structure and Performance: Evidence from NASCAR By Frick, Bernd; Humphreys, Brad
  2. Der Einfluss der Gesundheitszufriedenheit auf die Sportaktivität: eine empirische Längsschnittanalyse mit den Daten des sozio-oekonomischen Panels By Simone Becker
  3. Cross-Assignment Discrimination in Pay: A Test Case of Major League Baseball By Bodvarsson, Örn B.; Sessions, John G.

  1. By: Frick, Bernd (University of Paderborn); Humphreys, Brad (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The predictions that emerge from tournament theory have been tested in a number of sports-related settings. Since sporting events involving individuals (golf, tennis, running, auto racing) feature rank order tournaments with relatively large payoffs and easily observable outcomes, sports is a natural setting for such tests. In this paper, we test the predictions of tournament theory using a unique race-level data set from NASCAR. Most of the previous tests of tournament theory using NASCAR data have used either season level data or race level data from a few seasons. Our empirical work uses race level NASCAR data for 1,114 races over the period 1975-2009. Our results support the predictions of tournament theory: the larger the spread in prizes paid in the race, measured by the standard deviation of prizes paid or the interquartile range of prizes paid, the higher the average speed in the race. Our results account for the length of the track, the number of entrants, the number of caution flags, and unobservable year and week heterogeneity.
    Keywords: NASCAR; tournament theory
    JEL: J22 J33 L83
    Date: 2011–08–01
  2. By: Simone Becker
    Abstract: Sport zur Gesundheitsbeeinflussung ist in westlichen Industriegesellschaften ein gesellschaftlich akzeptiertes Mittel. Da jedoch die meisten existierenden Studien auf Querschnittdaten beruhen, lassen sich auf der Grundlage dieser Studien keine kausalen Aussagen zur komplexen Wechselwirkung von Sport und Gesundheit treffen. Es stellt sich also die Frage, ob Sportler gesünder sind, weil sie Sport treiben oder ob Gesunde mehr Sport treiben. Die durchgeführten Analysen beziehen sich auf Daten aus dem Sozio-Oekonomischen Panel (SOEP). Die SOEP-Auswertungen belegen, dass eine hohe Gesundheitszufriedenheit den Beginn eines sportlichen Lebensstils fördert und das Abbruchrisiko sportlicher Aktivität reduziert.
    Keywords: Sport, Gesundheit, SOEP, Medizinsoziologie, Sportsoziologie, Ereignisdatenanalyse, Gesundheitszufriedenheit
    JEL: I31 J26
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Bodvarsson, Örn B. (St. Cloud State University); Sessions, John G. (University of Bath)
    Abstract: The traditional Becker/Arrow style model of discrimination depicts majority and minority and workers as perfectly substitutable inputs, implying that all workers have the same job assignment. The model is only appropriate for determining whether pay differences between, for example, whites and non-whites doing job assignment A are attributable to prejudice ('within-assignment discrimination'); It is inappropriate, however, for determining whether pay differences between whites in job assignment A and non-whites in job assignment B reflect discriminatory behaviour ('cross-assignment discrimination'). We test the model of such cross assignment discrimination developed by Bodvarsson and Sessions (2011) using data on Major League Baseball hitters and pitchers for four different seasons during the 1990s, a decade during which monopsony power fell. We find strong evidence of ceteris paribus racial pay differences between hitters and pitchers, as well as evidence that cross-assignment discrimination varies with labour market structure.
    Keywords: wage discrimination, complementarity, monopsony power
    JEL: J7
    Date: 2011–09

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