nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2011‒07‒13
two papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Referee home bias due to social pressure. Evidence from Spanish football By Andrés Picazo-Tadeo; Francisco Gónzalez-Gómez; Jorge Guardiola Wanden-Berghe
  2. “How Important to a City Are Tourists and Daytrippers? The Economic Impact of Tourism on The City of Barcelona” By Joaquim Murillo; Esther Vayá; Javier Romaní; Jordi Suriñach

  1. By: Andrés Picazo-Tadeo (Universidad de Valencia); Francisco Gónzalez-Gómez (Universidad de Granada); Jorge Guardiola Wanden-Berghe (Universidad de Granada)
    Abstract: This paper analyses referee home bias due to social pressure with data from the matches played in the First Division of the Spanish football league between the 2002/03 and 2009/10 seasons. The aim is to assess the behaviour of the referee in relation to two decisions, namely free kicks awarded and players booked. The variables used to explain referee behaviour are the number of spectators attending matches, the percentage occupation of the stadium and the existence or not of running tracks, all of which are intended to represent social pressure, in addition to referee experience. Furthermore, two control variables concerning ball possession and shots at goal are included. Regarding methodology, two random effects panel data regression models are estimated. The first model explains the difference in the number of home team fouls and away team fouls, while the second explains the difference in yellow and red cards shown to local and away teams. The results obtained cannot confirm, at least in the period under analysis, that Spanish football referees have been biased in favour of the home team when it comes to awarding free kicks. However, once a free kick has been awarded, there does appear to be a referee home bias in the punishment a player receives for committing a foul. These findings suggest that when there is a large crowd in the stadium, the referee tends to find it easier to book away team players than home players. A sensible hypothesis that could explain this result is that the time the referee has to make a decision does affect the final outcome. While referees are not biased when it comes to awarding a free kick, they are when given more time to make a decision, allowing social pressure to work in favour of the home time.
    Keywords: Social pressure; crowd effect; referee home bias; sports economics
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: Joaquim Murillo (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Esther Vayá (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Javier Romaní (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Jordi Suriñach (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper, we devise a methodology that is able to objectively quantify the impact of tourism on the urban economy. This methodology takes various dimensions into account. First, to analyse the impact at sectoral level, it should bear in mind that tourism is a "cross-sectional" activity which affects many sectors, both directly and indirectly. Therefore, it is important to consider the impact of urban tourism on sectors traditionally defined as "tourism-related" (that is, hotels, restaurants, shops, etc.) but also its impact on other sectors (for instance, textiles, food, construction, to name only a few) due to the intersectoral relationships that emerge. Second, we need to calculate the percentage of the turnover of each sector that is due to the tourism industry. Third, it is important to establish the geographic distribution of this impact: how is the effect shared between the city and its neighbouring areas? Finally, the effect of urban tourism should be quantified not only in terms of turnover, but also in terms of its contribution to GDP and employment.
    Keywords: Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism; Input–Output Tables and Analysis;Allocative Efficiency; Cost–Benefit Analysis algorithms. JEL classification:
    Date: 2011–06

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