nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2010‒11‒06
four papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. "Globalised sports in a historical perspective" By Christer Ericsson; Bjorn Horgby
  2. What does it mean to find the Face of the Franchise? Physical Attractiveness and the Evaluation of Athletic Performance By Rob Simmons; David Berri; Jennifer Van Gilder; Lisle O'Neill
  3. De la pertinence du capital humain comme objet comptable : le cas des joueurs de football By Bernard Gumb; François Desmoulins-Lebeault
  4. "Company Strategies and Sport Models" By Christer Ericsson

  1. By: Christer Ericsson (School of Health and Medical Sciences, Orebro University); Bjorn Horgby (School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Orebro University)
    Abstract: The great interest in Asia for European, male football is an expression of globalised sports. Here globalisation and processes of globalisation stands for the economical, social and cultural processes, which link and affect globally. Global capitalism created a world hegemony. As a consequence the hegemonic power of the western world (including Japan) until now will be the norm of interpretation. A precondition for the development of globalised sports as an industry of entertainment is the developing of a global infrastructure - especially in the shape of cable and satellite television. This infra structure, developed in the 80s and 90s, made it possible to worldwide watching of Olympic games, European Championships and World Championships in male football. The expansion of media played an important role for especially European football being global. The heavy interest was capitalized in the rights of broadcasting, which rapidly became substantial costly as the requests on the market grew. Global attention made well-known athletics as the British footballer David Beckham becoming symbols of public relations twinning sports, entertainment and advertising in their brand names. Also the leading football clubs (or entertainment enterprises) as Manchester United and Barcelona became actors on a global commercial market. The season 1992/93 the Champions League became a formidable success. On the expanding broadcasting market the prime European football soon became a global matter. The combination of TV-rights and the logic of competition and success resulted in strengthening of the already economically strong clubs, which made them even more successful both sporting and economically. The broadcasting rights play an important role in the formation of the leading clubs as profitdriven companies. Financially strong interests of owners now compete of purchasing clubs in the British Premier League. Another consequence of the global infra structure were the effects on the conditions of the labour market of sports. The new economical preconditions created assumptions for them to buy the best players on the market. The direction of the mobility from the economical periphery to the economical centre implies that the players move to Western Europe and the leading leagues there. The processes of globalisation got many cultural consequences. Traditionalistic reactions in the Western World resulted in growing national and specific local identities. Sports are important fields for the interpretation of these identities. The use of national symbols connected to sports has been more common. Firsthand supporting the national team has become more common. The interest from media has increast distinctly. The national celebration of the successes has increased - especially in the form of celebrating the heroes in a carnivalesque way. The local identities are mostly expressed as the cultures of supporters. Hooliganism is an extreme form of this, which heavily has affected European male football. Hooliganism is a social problem, but when comes to the audience's behaviour it is a relative marginal phenomenon. Historically the male football interpreted class and local identities. As a result of this processes the audience was considered as an uncontrolled mass, which express community, carnival and ritual with tifon's, supporting chants and songs. Hooliganism has existed all through the football's history, as one undercurrent. It got increased attention after England's victory in the World Championships of 1966. As a consequence of the mediated interest modern British style of football hooliganism in 1971 came to Sweden. In the 90s the problem grew, when the hooligan firms expanded. But, the historical perspective shows that the western problem with hooliganism is old and cannot be distinguished from the practice of football. The violent European fans treat the British hooligans as role-models, which inspired them and told them how to develop their own culture. The hooligans also are inspired by the increasing media coverage of football related violence.
    Date: 2010–10
  2. By: Rob Simmons; David Berri; Jennifer Van Gilder; Lisle O'Neill
    Abstract: Previous research has shown how more attractive people reap more rewards in a variety of settings. We show that attractiveness as measured by facial symmetry leads to greater rewards in professional sports. National Football League quarterbacks who are more attractive are paid greater salaries and this premium persists after controlling for player performance.
    Keywords: facial symmetry; salaries; NFL quarterbacks
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Bernard Gumb (GDF - Gestion, Droit et Finance - Grenoble Ecole de Management); François Desmoulins-Lebeault (GDF - Gestion, Droit et Finance - Grenoble Ecole de Management)
    Abstract: Pour des raisons pratiques, le cas du football est souvent considéré comme idéal-typique des liens existant entre les performances et l'utilisation des ressources humaines. Les règles comptables consistant à traiter les contrats de certains joueurs comme des actifs incorporels, d'aucuns estiment que le contexte du football constitue un exemple révélateur de la valorisation comptable du capital humain. Notre revue de la littérature et nos réflexions révèlent que les frais de transfert ne sont pas une mesure du capital humain, mais incluent des éléments de marketing et contractuels qui peuvent aller bien au delà. Au contraire, ce qui peut être considéré comme du véritable capital humain (dépenses d'entraînement, formation d'un esprit d'équipe...) n'est pas activable selon les règles comptables. Est-ce donc que le véritable capital humain ne peut pas être considéré comme un objet comptable ? Le cas du football serait alors révélateur, non pas d'une réification du capital humain, mais de son statut complexe et transversal qui l'empêche d'accéder à un statut d'objet comptable.
    Keywords: capital immatériel ; capital humain ; joueur de football ; pertinence ; objet comptable
    Date: 2010–06–18
  4. By: Christer Ericsson (School of Health and Medical Sciences, Orebro University)
    Abstract: The comparison in this article between companies in Japan and Sweden shows that although there are obvious historical and cultures differences between the countries different routes towards becoming modern democratic welfare states, differences in the industrialization and in modernization; differences in how sport were introduced and how it was shaped, there are similarities in how companies used sport in company strategies.
    Date: 2010–10

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