nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2010‒01‒30
five papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. The demand for football tickets depending on the number of clubs in a city - Empirical evidence from Germany - By Markus Breuer
  2. Sports Heroes and Mass Sports Participation – The (Double) Paradox of the "German Tennis Boom" By Arne Feddersen; Sven Jacobsen; Wolfgang Maennig
  3. Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior By David Card; Gordon Dahl
  4. Mapping the Discipline of the Olympic Games An Author- Cocitation Analysis By Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey
  5. Lifestyles and Preferences for (Public) Goods: Professional Football in Munich By Gabriel Ahlfeldt; Wolfgang Maennig; Michaela Ölschläger

  1. By: Markus Breuer (University of Jena)
    Abstract: The demand for football tickets in European top-leagues has been subject of several studies within the last years e. g. in France, England and Germany. These papers focussed mainly on single matches and the significance of factors like uncertainty, performance of the clubs or date and time of a competition. In contrast this paper tries to build up a simple model to estimate the average number of visitors in the course of a whole season. Moreover the market entrance of a second club is considered. While in stage one an old-established club represents a regional monopolist, in stage two another club qualifies itself for playing in the first division what breaks up the old monopolistic position. Finally the model assumptions are compared to empirical findings from Germany and its major league.
    Keywords: sport economy, professional sport leagues, market entry
    JEL: L R
    Date: 2009
  2. By: Arne Feddersen (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg); Sven Jacobsen; Wolfgang Maennig (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg)
    Abstract: The major sporting success of one’s countrymen and women is often supposed to promote the growth of general participation in that sport. This study is the first to analyse the impact of sports heroes on the membership figures of the corresponding sports association by means of an econometric analysis. We do so by evaluating the so-called "Boris Becker effect" by simultaneously testing for the effects of the rise and retirement of the three stars Boris Becker, Stefanie Graf, and Michael Stich. As a first paradox, our results indicate a negative tennis growth effect associated with the time period of the ascendency of the sport stars. With the first paradox, their retirement should then have a positive effect. In this sense, our second result of a statistically negative tennis growth since the declining success of the German tennis stars must be regarded as a second paradox.
    Keywords: Keywords: Tennis, Sport Association Memberships, Boris Becker Effect, Mass Sport Participation
    JEL: L83 C23
    Date: 2009
  3. By: David Card (University of California Berkeley); Gordon Dahl (University of California, San Diego)
    Abstract: Family violence is a pervasive and costly problem, yet there is no consensus on how to interpret the phenomenon of violence by one family member against another. Some analysts assume that violence has an instrumental role in intra-family incentives. Others argue that violent episodes represent a loss of control that the offender immediately regrets. In this paper we specify and test a behavioral model of the latter form in which the strength of an emotional cue depends on outcomes relative to expectations and individuals exhibit loss aversion. Our key hypothesis is that negative emotional cues -- benchmarked relative to a rationally expected reference point -- make a breakdown of control more likely. We test this hypothesis using data on police reports of family violence on Sundays during the professional football season. Controlling for location and time fixed effects, weather factors, the pre-game point spread, and the size of the local viewing audience, we find that upset losses by the home team (losses in games that the home team was predicted to win by more than 3 points) lead to an 8 percent increase in police reports of at-home male-on-female intimate partner violence. There is no corresponding effect on female-on-male violence. Consistent with the behavioral prediction that losses matter more than gains, upset victories by the home team have (at most) a small dampening effect on family violence. We also find that unexpected losses in highly salient or frustrating games have a 50% to 100% larger impact on rates of family violence. The evidence that payoff-irrelevant events affect the rate of family violence leads us to conclude that at least some fraction of family violence is better characterized as a breakdown of control than as an intra-family incentive system. More generally, the empirical findings suggest that gain-loss utility with a rational reference point could be a useful approach to modeling other cues and visceral influences.
    Date: 2009–10
  4. By: Peter Warning; Ching Ju Mae Rosie; Kristine Toohey (Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: When most people think about the Olympic Games it is usually in terms of athletic performance. Clearly they are more than that (see Toohey & Veal, 1990). Even the mass media does not confine itself to covering only the sporting angle. For example, symbolism, economic factors, nationalism and politics routinely appear in mass media articles relating to the Olympic Games. There are scholarly journals that are devoted exclusively to the Olympic Games, such as Olympika and the Journal of Olympic History. So what do we mean when we talk about Olympic scholarship? Cursory scanning of other sport journals also reveals a plethora of subjects ranging from legal aspects to history to philatelic aspects among a host of Olympic topics. This paper questions how can we identify, classify and measure them.
    Keywords: Olympic Games, Olympic scholarship, sport journal
    JEL: L83 Z00
    Date: 2010–01
  5. By: Gabriel Ahlfeldt (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg); Wolfgang Maennig (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg); Michaela Ölschläger (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the 2001 referendum on the Allianz-Arena, a professional soccer stadium in Munich, Germany, with respect to lifestyle-specific voter preferences. Using political party affiliation and milieu probabilities as proxy variables, we find that lifestyle-specific preferences, values and attitudes more significantly contribute to the explanation of voting outcome compared to traditional strata-orientated indicators of economic wealth. Thus, lifestyle, preferences, tastes and attitudes are not proportionally related to income. Results are robust to stadium proximity effects and spatial dependency.
    Keywords: Lifestyle, Milieu, Referendum, Stadium, Munich
    JEL: D72 H40 P36 R58
    Date: 2009

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