nep-spo New Economics Papers
on Sports and Economics
Issue of 2006‒01‒24
three papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Hazard of Being an English Football League Manager: Empirical Estimates from the 2002/3 Season By Ray Bachan; Barry Reilly; Robert Witt
  2. Do Professionals Choke Under Pressure? By Thomas J. Dohmen
  3. Violence, Gender and the Price of Beer in England and Wales By Matthews, Kent; Shepherd, Jonathan; Sivarajasingham, Vaseekaran; Benbow, Sally

  1. By: Ray Bachan (University of Brighton); Barry Reilly (University of Sussex); Robert Witt (University of Surrey)
    Abstract: This paper uses data drawn from the English Football League to model hazard rates for club managers in the 2002/3 season. Nearly one-third of managers involuntarily exited employment status with their club in that season. We model the hazard on the basis of a spell at risk, rather than the individual, using a standard logistic model. The role of neglected heterogeneity is also examined using random and fixed effects logistic models within the discrete-time setting. League position at the start of the spell at risk is found to be the most important determinant of a manager’s exit. A variety of individual specific human capital covariates were found to be unimportant in determining the hazard and no role for unobservable heterogeneity as captured by random effects was detected.
    Keywords: econometrics; sports
    Date: 2005–10
  2. By: Thomas J. Dohmen (IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: High rewards or the threat of severe punishment do not only provide incentives to exert high levels of effort but also create pressure. Such pressure can cause paradoxical performance effects, namely performance decrements despite strong incentives and high motivation. By analyzing the performance of professional football players on a well-defined task, namely to score on a penalty kick, the paper provides empirical evidence for the existence of such detrimental incentive effects. Two pressure variables are considered in particular: (1) the importance of success and (2) the presence of spectators. There are plenty of situations in which pressure arises in the workplace. Knowing how individuals perform under pressure conditions is crucial for labor economists because it has implications for the design of the workplace and the design of incentive schemes.
    Keywords: choking under pressure, paradoxical performance effects of incentives, social pressure
    JEL: M54 Z13
    Date: 2005–12
  3. By: Matthews, Kent (Cardiff Business School); Shepherd, Jonathan; Sivarajasingham, Vaseekaran; Benbow, Sally
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of the real price of beer on violence-related injuries split by gender across the economic regions in England and Wales. It was concluded that alcohol prices and injury sustained in violence is causally related in both males and females. Injury of females is causally related to poverty but injury of males. However, nationwide sports events were associated only with male assault injury. Violence-related harm was significantly and independently linked to other socio-economic and demographic factors. Our results suggest that the real price of alcohol (using beer as an example) has a part to play in controlling the consumption of alcohol and the incidence of violent injury.
    Keywords: Alcohol; gender; violence; price of beer
    JEL: K40 I30 C50
    Date: 2006–01

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