nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2021‒07‒12
four papers chosen by
Jonas Holmström
Axventure AB

  1. A Generation of Italian Economists By Martina Viarengo; Ugo Panizza; Enrico Nano
  2. Gender Differences in Peer Recognition by Economists By Card, David; DellaVigna, Stefano; Funk, Patricia; Iriberri, Nagore
  3. Game theory and scholarly publishing: premises for an agreement around open access By Abdelghani Maddi
  4. The Impact of Being Named a Top Party School on the Peer Rankings and the Academic Profile of a University By Abigail Cormier; Austin F. Eggers; Peter A. Groothuis; Kurt W. Rutthoff

  1. By: Martina Viarengo; Ugo Panizza; Enrico Nano (The Graduate Institute)
    Abstract: We examine the role of financial aid in shaping the formation of human capital in economics. Specifically, we study the impact of a large merit-based scholarship for graduate studies in affecting individuals’ occupational choices, career trajectories, and labor market outcomes of a generation of Italian economists with special focus on gender gaps and the role of social mobility. We construct a unique dataset that combines archival sources and includes microdata for the universe of applicants to the scholarship program and follow these individuals over their professional life. Our unique sample that focuses on the high end of the talent and ability distribution also allows us to analyze the characteristics of top graduates, a group which tends to be under-sampled in most surveys. We discuss five main results. First, women are less likely to be shortlisted for a scholarship as they tend to receive lower scores in the most subjective criteria used in the initial screening of candidates. Second, scholarship winners are much more likely to choose a research career and this effect is larger for women. Third, women who work in Italian universities tend to have less citations than men who work in Italy. However, the citation gender gap is smaller for candidates who received a scholarship. Fourth, women take longer to be promoted to the rank of full professor, even after controlling for academic productivity. Fifth, it is easier to become a high achiever for individuals from households with a lower socio-economic status if they reside in high social mobility provinces. However, high-achievers from lower socio-economic status households face an up-hill battle even in high social mobility provinces.
    Keywords: Human capital formation; Financial aid; Career trajectories; Gender gaps
    JEL: I22 I24 J16 J24
    Date: 2021–05
  2. By: Card, David (University of California, Berkeley); DellaVigna, Stefano (University of California, Berkeley); Funk, Patricia (USI Università della Svizzera Italiana); Iriberri, Nagore (University of the Basque Country)
    Abstract: We study the selection of Fellows of the Econometric Society, using a new data set of publications and citations for over 40,000 actively publishing economists since the early 1900s. Conditional on achievement, we document a large negative gap in the probability that women were selected as Fellows in the 1933-1979 period. This gap became positive (though not statistically significant) from 1980 to 2010, and in the past decade has become large and highly significant, with over a 100% increase in the probability of selection for female authors relative to males with similar publications and citations. The positive boost affects highly qualified female candidates (in the top 10% of authors) with no effect for the bottom 90%. Using nomination data for the past 30 years, we find a key proximate role for the Society's Nominating Committee in this shift. Since 2012 the Committee has had an explicit mandate to nominate highly qualified women, and its nominees enjoy above-average election success (controlling for achievement). Looking beyond gender, we document similar shifts in the premium for geographic diversity: in the mid-2000s, both the Fellows and the Nominating Committee became significantly more likely to nominate and elect candidates from outside the US. Finally, we examine gender gaps in several other major awards for US economists. We show that the gaps in the probability of selection of new fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences closely parallel those of the Econometric Society, with historically negative penalties for women turning to positive premiums in recent years.
    Keywords: peer recognition, citations, publication record, econometric society
    JEL: J71 I23
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: Abdelghani Maddi (HCERES, CEPN)
    Abstract: Actors in research and scientific publishing are gradually joining the Open-Access (OA) movement, which is gaining momentum to become nowadays at the heart of scientific policies in high-income countries. The rise of OA generates profound changes in the chain of production and dissemination of knowledge. Free access to peer-reviewed research methods and results has contributed to the dynamics of science observed in recent years. The modes of publication and access have also evolved; the classic model, based on journal subscriptions is gradually giving way to new economic models that have appeared with the arrival of OA. The objective of this article is twofold. First, propose a model for the publishing market based on the literature as well as on changes in open science policies. Second, analyze publishing strategies of publishers and institutions. To do so, we relied on game theory in economics. Results show that in the short term, the publisher's equilibrium strategy is to adopt a hybridpublishing model, while the institutions' equilibrium strategy is to publish in OA. This equilibrium is not stable and that in the medium/long term, the two players will converge on an OA publishing strategy. The analysis of the equilibrium in mixed-strategies confirms this result.
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: Abigail Cormier; Austin F. Eggers; Peter A. Groothuis; Kurt W. Rutthoff
    Abstract: We explore how being named the top party school by the Princeton Review affects the U.S. News and World Report peer rankings as well as the academic profile of a university. We find that being named the top party school lowers peer rankings, freshman retention, and the academic quality of incoming students at a university. However, we also find that being named a top party school has no effect on an institution’s acceptance rate. These results suggest that the publicity of being named the top party school in the nation enhances a school’s undesirable reputation as measured by peer ranking, and also negatively influences student enrollment decisions, particularly among top academic performing students. Key Words: Higher Education, Academic Ranking, Party School
    Date: 2020

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